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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Sexuality education in New Zealand: What adolescents are being taught and what they really want to know

    Sexuality education is the only subject in New Zealand schools which requires parents to be consulted on the content. Since it is associated with moral and social issues, it is a controversial topic. However, what has been notably missing from the debate is the voice of those most immediately concerned with the outcome— the adolescent.

  2. Global review of sanitation system trends and interactions with menstrual management practices. Report for the menstrual management and sanitation systems project

    This review of sanitation system trends and interactions with menstrual management practices has been conducted as part of the broader project on Menstrual Management and Sanitation Systems. It starts with a review of trends in the development of urban sanitation systems and then explores the interaction between menstrual management and sanitation systems, mainly relating to the issue of disposal of used menstrual blood absorption materials. …

  3. The girl with her period is the one to hang her head. Reflections on menstrual management among schoolgirls in rural Kenya

    Background. The onset of menstruation is a landmark event in the life of a young woman. Yet the complications and challenges that can accompany such an event have been understudied, specifically in resource-poor settings. As interventions aim to improve female attendance in schools, it is important to explore how menstruation is perceived and navigated by girls in the school setting. This research conveys rural Kenyan schoolgirls' perceptions and practices related to menstruation. Methods. Data were collected at six rural schools in the Nyanza Province of Western Kenya. …

  4. Exploring the opinions of parents and teachers about young people receiving puberty and sex education in rural Kenya: a qualitative study

    In Kenya, one of the most significant public health concerns is the spread of HIV. Additionally, 13,000 girls drop out of school every year due to pregnancy. Although the Kenyan Ministry of Education and other independent organisations have tried to implement various means of developing puberty and sexual health education for young people, the situation is not improving. Aims: To explore the opinions of teachers and parents in rural Kenya about delivering puberty and sex education and to identify their perceptions of barriers to young people accessing this education. …

  5. Celebrating womanhood: How better menstrual hygiene management is the path to better health, dignity and business

    This report details the Celebrating Womanhood: Menstrual Hygiene Management event held in March 2013 to discuss menstruation, a subject which is even now taboo in the higest corridors of funding and decision-making.

  6. The effect of a school-based educational intervention on menstrual health: an intervention study among adolescent girls in Bangladesh

    This is the first study to evaluate a menstrual education programme among adolescent school girls in Bangladesh. This study evaluated the menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices of, and menstrual disorders experienced by, students in grade 6–8 in Bangladesh.

  7. Doing harm in the name of protection: menstruation as a topic for sex education

    Pubertal changes in girls and boys are treated differently in school materials in New Zealand. Girls are taught about menstruation in a scientific manner oriented towards reproduction, hygiene and personal stress. Boys receive more positive information about 'exciting' and 'powerful' bodily changes which they can enjoy. The picture of growing up which girls receive is relatively bleak, and is out of touch with the realities of their own lives and those of adult women around them. …

  8. Menstrual hygiene in South Asia: a neglected issue for WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) programmes

    In total, women spend around six to seven years of their lives menstruating. A key priority for women and girls is to have the necessary knowledge, facilities and cultural environment to manage menstruation hygienically, and with dignity. Yet the importance of menstrual hygiene management is mostly neglected by development practitioners within the WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) sector, and other related sectors such as reproductive health. …

  9. Investing in very young adolescents' sexual and reproductive health

    Very young adolescents (VYAs) between the ages of 10 and 14 represent about half of the 1.2 billion adolescents aged 10–19 in the world today. In lower- and middleincome countries, where most unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, maternal deaths and sexually transmitted infections occur, investment in positive youth development to promote sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is increasing. Most interventions, though, focus on older adolescents, overlooking VYAs. …

  10. A critical analysis of UNESCO's International Technical Guidance on school-based education for puberty and sexuality

    Preparing children and adolescents for sexual safety and reproductive responsibility lies at the heart and purpose of puberty/sexuality education. The document of International Technical Guidance released by UNESCO in December 2009 aims to provide an evidence-based and rights-based platform offering children and adolescents vital knowledge about relationships, sexuality, reproduction and HIV/AIDS, within a structured teaching and learning process in the compulsory school years. …

  11. Sanitation and Education

    One in five children worldwide does not complete upper-primary school, with particularly high drop-out rates among pubescent-age girls that may limit economic opportunities and perpetuate gender inequality. This paper tests whether educational attainment is stymied by endemically inadequate school sanitation that threatens children's health, privacy, and safety. …

  12. Puberty education and menstrual hygiene management

    This power point presentation accompanies the UNESCO publication on Puberty Education and Menstrual Hygiene Management. With the aim of increasing implementation of effective programmes at country level, the power point presentation presents the main points and findings of the publication. These issues underscore the inter-sectoral nature of school health requiring education, linkages to health services and safe water and sanitation. This publication builds on these and highlights UNESCO’s contribution and comparative advantage, the process of teaching and learning.

  13. Study on menstrual management in Uganda

    This pilot research study on the impact of menstrual hygiene on girls in school is primarily aimed at the Ministry of Education and Sports and the National Sanitation Working Group. Within the context of Uganda, the results of this study will be used to provide evidence-based advocacy on the role of upper primary girls, from the ages of 13-18, whom have started menstruating, with a specific emphasis placed on the issues and challenges that they face at school. …

  14. We keep it secret so no one should know - A qualitative study to explore young schoolgirls attitudes and experiences with menstruation in rural western Kenya

    Background: Keeping girls in school offers them protection against early marriage, teen pregnancy, and sexual harms, and enhances social and economic equity. Studies report menstruation exacerbates school-drop out and poor attendance, although evidence is sparse. This study qualitatively examines the menstrual experiences of young adolescent schoolgirls. Methods and Findings: The study was conducted in Siaya County in rural western Kenya. A sample of 120 girls aged 14–16 years took part in 11 focus group discussions, which were analysed thematically. …

  15. Growing up at school. A guide to menstrual management for school girls

    This booklet has been written to help school girls manage the critical period when they enter adolescence between the ages of 10 and 14. Adolescence is the time during which boys and girls grow from childhood into adulthood and changes take place in their bodies. During this period, known as puberty, menstruation starts in girls.

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