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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Teenage pregnancy in South Africa: With a specific focus on school-going learners

    The purpose of the study was to document, review and critically analyse literature on teenage pregnancy with a focus on school-going adolescents. The specific objectives were as follows: To review existing literature and conduct statistical analyses to establish the prevalence and determinants of teenage pregnancy; To assess the individual, familial and educative impact of teenage pregnancy; To identify and assess the impact of interventions for teenage pregnancy; and To propose a conceptual framework for research and interventions to prevent and mitigate the impact of teen pregnancy. …

  2. Unintended pregnancy and abortion in Uganda

    Unintended pregnancy is common in Uganda, leading to high levels of unplanned births, unsafe abortions, and maternal injury and death. Because most pregnancies that end in abortion are unwanted, nearly all ill health and mortality resulting from unsafe abortion is preventable. This report summarizes evidence on the context and consequences of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Uganda, points out gaps in knowledge, and highlights steps that can be taken to reduce levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, and, in turn, the high level of maternal mortality.

  3. Books and babies. Pregnancy and young parents in schools

    Being pregnant and a young parent in South African schools is not easy. Books and Babies examines why this is the case. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative research conducted in secondary schools in Durban and Cape Town, the book explores how teachers and principals respond to the presence of pregnant learners and young parents in school, and surveys the attitudes of fellow learners towards them. …

  4. Teenage, married and out of school. Effects of early marriage and childbirth on school dropout

    In this paper, we tackle the question of causality between early marriage and school dropout, using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from nine Southern and Eastern African countries. By comparing school participation patterns of girls who were married before or during the school year in question to those were never married, we are able to establish a sequence of events and therefore, a more solid foundation for treating marriage as a cause of school dropout. In short, the first research question for this paper is as follows: Research Question 1. …

  5. Let girls be girls, not mothers! National strategy for the reduction of teenage pregnancy (2013-2015)

    The approach of this strategy follows a twin-track strategy which will intervene at two levels: At the policy level, partners of the programme aim at reviewing existing policies and legal documents or at developing new instruments to protect adolescents and young people's rights and guarantee their access to SRHR information and services; at the community level, partners are mobilized to reduce early childbearing and teenage pregnancy through improved access to SRHR services for young people, comprehensive education on early childbearing and teenage pregnancy and SRHR in general as well as thr …

  6. A review of teenage pregnancy in South Africa – experiences of schooling, and knowledge and access to sexual and reproductive health services

    Approximately 30% of teenagers in South Africa report ‘ever having been pregnant’, the majority, unplanned. While this number has decreased over the past few decades, it is still unacceptably high. The figure is for all teenagers. (13-19 years old), but motherhood for an 18 or 19 year old has very different implications than for a young teenager, one aged 15, for example. Therefore this report tries, where possible, to be mindful of differing experiences of pregnancy and motherhood across the teen years. …

  7. Adolescent pregnancy and associated factors in South African youth

    Background: Adolescent pregnancy, occurring in girls aged 10–19 years, remains a serious health and social problem worldwide, and has been associated with numerous risk factors evident in the young people’s family, peer, school, and neighbourhood contexts. Objective: To assess the prevalence of adolescent pregnancy and associated factors in the South African context, as part of a population-based household survey that formed part of an evaluation of the impact of loveLife, South Africa’s national HIV prevention campaign for young people. …

  8. Preventing HIV and unintended pregnancies: strategic framework 2011–2015

    This framework supports the 'Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive'. It is a product of The Inter-agency Task Team (IATT) for Prevention and Treatment of HIV Infection in Pregnant Women, Mothers, and their Children and was developed by the IATT Working Group on Primary Prevention of HIV and the Prevention of Unintended Pregnancies in Women Living with HIV (now included with the Integration Working Group under the re-configured IATT). It offers guidance to: 1. …

  9. WHO guidelines on preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries

    These guidelines provide recommendations on action and research for a) preventing early pregnancy: by preventing marriage before 18 years of age; by increasing knowledge and understanding of the importance of pregnancy prevention; by increasing the use of contraception; and by preventing coerced sex; and b) preventing poor reproductive outcomes: by reducing unsafe abortions; and by increasing the use of skilled antenatal, childbirth and postnatal care. …

  10. Girls' schooling and the perceived threat of adolescent sexual activity in rural Malawi

    Despite its relative infrequency, pregnancy is perceived by parents in rural Malawi as a leading cause of school dropout among female students. This paper explores parents' beliefs about adolescent sexual activity and schoolgirl pregnancy and how these perceptions frame parents' aspirations and expectations about girls' schooling. In-depth interviews were collected in rural Malawi from 60 adults aged 25–50 who were the parent of at least one school-aged child. …

  11. Mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy: Experiences form an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    Parental communication and support is associated with improved developmental, health and behavioral outcomes in adolescence. This study explores the quality of mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy in Korogocho, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We use data from 14 focus group discussions (n = 124) and 25 interviews with girls aged 12-17, mothers of teenage girls, and key informant teachers. …

  12. Addressing early marriage of young and adolescent girls

    Girls in many resource-poor countries often have little choice about whom or when they marry. Orphans and young girls without involved caregivers are particularly vulnerable to early marriage. Early marriage curtails girls’ freedom, isolates them from peers, and ends their education prematurely. Often wed to men who are older and more sexually experienced, young brides lack power and are more likely to experience partner violence. They risk exposure to HIV and other STIs. …

  13. Human capital consequences of teenage childbearing in South Africa

    Women in South Africa have had fewer children on average since the 1970s, but the rate of teenage childbearing in South Africa has remained the same. Large numbers of young mothers are a cause for social concern in South Africa and other countries because of the adverse impact of teenage childbearing on the education and health of teen mothers and their children. …

  14. Multi-city assessment of lifetime pregnancy involvement among street youth, Ukraine

    The authors conducted an assessment to describe the prevalence of and risk factors associated with lifetime pregnancy involvement (LPI) among street youth from three Ukrainian cities. They used modified time-location sampling to conduct a cross-sectional assessment in Odesa, Kyiv, and Donetsk that included citywide mapping of 91 public locations frequented by street youth, random selection of 74 sites, and interviewing of all eligible and consenting street youth ages 15-24 years found at sampled sites (n = 929). …

  15. Executive Summary: Sexual risk and protective factors. Factors affecting teen sexual behavior, pregnancy, childbearing and sexually transmitted disease: What are important? Which can you change?

    Executive Summary: Sexual Risk and Protective Factors. Factors Affecting Teen Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy, Childbearing And Sexually Transmitted Disease: What Are Important? Which Can You Change? is a document part of the project of the United States National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. It addresses two main primary questions: 1) what factors influence adolescents' decisions about sex? And 2) Which of these factors can be altered? By identifying and targeting those factors it tries to provide information to reduce sexual risk-taking.

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