Washington, DC: Brookings, 2014. 38 p.
Brookings Center for Universal Education
Working papers from the 2014 echidna global scholars
South Africa has made significant strides in enrolling girls in school, particularly at the basic education level, with high gender parity indexes (GPI) at the primary school level. However, the high attrition rate at the secondary level and the poor quality of educational experiences and learning opportunities, for girls in particular, remain areas of concern. Studies have found that of the children who enroll in grade 1, only 50 percent make it to grade 12 with the majority of these children dropping out at the secondary school level. Research and policy discourses in South Africa often explain the high rates of dropout among high school youth as a function of poverty and poor quality of teaching. These explanations often fail to consider sexual and reproductive health (SRH) as another important factor in adolescent girls dropping out. SRH is commonly defined as the ability to enjoy a satisfying and safe sex life and the capability to bear children and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. The dominant explanations often fail to consider the ways in which socio-cultural norms that subordinate girls negatively affect their SRHRH and, in turn, influence their persistence in and completion of secondary education. This paper examines the complex socio-cultural conditions in which girls and women live and learn (including unequal gender norms, gender-based violence and sexual and reproductive health) and the associated impact on girls’ education, using unplanned teenage pregnancy as an example of a gendered reason for girls dropping out of school. The paper seeks to explore whether an approach to SRHRH education that takes the socio-political environment into consideration could better give girls the skills and resources they need to make informed decisions about their bodies, including whether, how and when to have sex and/or children. Most importantly, could such an approach to SRH education help improve girls’ persistence in school and their educational success?
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