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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Adolescent schoolgirls’ experiences of menstrual cups and pads in rural western Kenya: a qualitative study

    Poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) among schoolgirls in low income countries affects girls' dignity, self-esteem, and schooling. Hygienic, effective, and sustainable menstrual products are required. A randomized controlled feasibility study was conducted among 14-16-year-old girls, in 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, to examine acceptability, use, and safety of menstrual cups or sanitary pads. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted to evaluate girls' perceptions and experiences six months after product introduction. …

  2. Pupil absenteeism, measurement, and menstruation: Evidence from Kenya

    Impact evaluations focused on school absenteeism commonly use school records of untested quality or expensive spot-check data. We use a large dataset on more than 30,000 unannounced random spot-checks for 6,000 female and male students across 30 schools in Western Kenya, with equivalent school record entries. First, we confirm that while absenteeism is common overall, pubescent girls miss more schooldays than boys because of high incidence of school transfers. …

  3. Menstruation: Breaking the silence, taking action

    In 2014, the United Nations declared May 28 of every year as Menstrual Hygiene Day in recognition of the woes girls and women experience during menstruation. This was a reaffirmation of the world’s commitment to create more befitting living conditions for girls and women. Uganda commemorated the first Menstrual Hygiene Day in 2014 and in August of the same year held the first International Menstrual Hygiene Management Conference, here in Kampala. …

  4. Understanding and managing menstruation: a reader for learners

    This reader is a Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES) initiative to provide information to pupils on understanding of menstruation and managing it well, particularly to beginners.

  5. Menstrual hygiene management compliance in primary schools in Uganda: a case of Lira Municipality

    The main objective of the study was to determine the influence of Menstrual Hygiene Management on school absenteeism of adolescent girls in 10 primary schools in Lira municipality. Our findings highlighted that; majority of the respondent’s onset of the menstruation was at 13 years of age, 60% of the participants used disposable pads. Most respondents changed their pads at least twice a day. Two fifth of the primary girls reported missing school for about 3 days during menstrual periods pointing to the lack of menstrual hygiene products. …

  6. HIV/AIDS and teacher absenteeism: implications for attainment of quality education in Uganda

    This powerpoint presents a qualitative study carried out in the districts of Bushenyi (rural without civil conflict), Katakwi (rural and affected by armed conflict) and Kampala (urban). It looks at the nature and magnitude of teachers’ absenteeism and the extent to which HIV/AIDS has escalated it and assesses the impact of HIV/AIDS-based teachers’ absenteeism on the attainment of the quality of education. The study also proposes functional solutions to address the causes and effects of teachers absenteeism with specific emphasis on HIV/AIDS-based absenteeism.

  7. Development of a relief teacher strategy to mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS in the education sector. Desk review report

    The terms of reference (TOR) calling for the development of a relief teacher strategy to mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS in the education sector indicate that “Namibia’s teachers are at a relatively high risk of HIV infection. Projections suggest that in 2002, around one in seven (teachers) were HIV-infected (Abt Report, 2002, p.vi). The report further indicates that teacher losses averaged 1.5% between 2000 and 2002, with higher rates (2%) reported in the country’s northern parts. …

  8. Accessing the ‘right’ kinds of material and symbolic capital: the role of cash transfers in reducing adolescent school absence and risky behaviour in South Africa

    This article investigates how well South Africa’s Child Support Grant (CSG) responds to the material and psychosocial needs of adolescents, and the resultant effects on schooling and risky behaviour. One driver of schooling decisions is shame related to poverty and the ‘social cost’ of school, where a premium must often be paid for fashionable clothes or accessories. The other driver relates to symbolic and consumptive capital gained through engaging in sexual exchange relationships. The anticipated impacts from the CSG are partial because of these non-material drivers of adolescent choices. …

  9. Menstruation management

    Special issue of the gender eye on menstruation management: initiatives and innovations in Uganda for the National Conference on Menstrual Hygiene Management.14th-15th August 2014.

  10. Guidelines for development and implementation of institutional HIV and AIDS policies

    These Guidelines aim to provide practical assistance to any higher education institution that wishes to embark on a process for the development/review and implementation of institutional policies and programmes on HIV and AIDS. It also provides guidance on how to establish an effective M&E system to support implementation of institutional policies and programmes. There are 5 sections, each of which provide broad actions, steps and a checklist to guide the development/review and implementation of institutional HIV and AIDS policies and programmes.

  11. HIV and AIDS. Its impact on education and an analysis of the implementation of the Kenyan education sector policy on HIV and AIDS

    The aim of this study, undertaken at the request of the Kenyan Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoEST), was to describe and analyse the impact of HIV and AIDS on the education sector in Kenya, and provide a situational analysis of the implementation of the Kenyan Education Sector Policy on HIV and AIDS (2004). It aimed to provide empirical evidence on how HIV and AIDS have affected the education sector in Kenya, and to identify gaps in research and programme interventions. …

  12. Menstruation and school absenteeism: Evidence from rural Malawi

    The provision of toilets and menstrual supplies appears to be a promising strategy to promote adolescent girls' school attendance and performance in less developed countries. In this article, we use the first round of the Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Survey (MSAS) to examine the individual- and school-level factors associated with menstruation-related school absenteeism. …

  13. Economic impact of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on education supply in high prevalence regions

    Background: We set out to estimate, for the three geographical regions with the highest HIV prevalence, (sub-Saharan Africa [SSA], the Caribbean and the Greater Mekong sub-region of East Asia), the human resource and economic impact of HIV on the supply of education from 2008 to 2015, the target date for the achievement of Education For All (EFA), contrasting the continuation of access to care, support and Antiretroviral therapy (ART) to the scenario of universal access. …

  14. Universities and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: University of Zambia

    This case study on the University of Zambia aimed at answering the following questions: In what ways has the University of Zambia been affected by HIV/AIDS? How has the university responded to these impacts? What steps is the university taking to control and limit the further spread of HIV/AIDS in its community? What HIV/AIDS-related teaching, research, publication, and advisory services has the university undertaken? How does the university propose to anticipate and address the larger impact of HIV/AIDS on the national labour market for university graduates? …

  15. The impact of HIV/AIDS on the rights of the child to education

    Strengthening the rights of the child is a priority area for SADC-EU cooperation. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the SADC countries places many of these rights in jeopardy, among them the right to education.

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