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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Youth in a void: sexuality, HIV/AIDS and communication in Kenyan public schools

    The disappearance of traditional sex education during rites of passage in African societies has left many youth uncertain of where to look for information. Against this backcloth, the objectives of this study were to identify knowledge gaps amongst adolescents in Kenya regarding sexuality, HIV/AIDS and reproductive health. A thematic analysis was conducted of questions posed by 735 school youth aged 12–18 years from Meru and Kajiado Districts. Results show that many questions showed curiosity and anxiousness. …

  2. If you don't abstain, you will die of AIDS: AIDS education in Kenyan public schools

    We explored constraints of implementing AIDS education in public schools in Kenya. Sixty interviews with teachers and 60 focus group discussions with students were conducted in 21 primary and nine secondary schools. System/school-level constraints included lack of time in the curriculum, limited reach of secondary-school students (because AIDS education is embedded in biology, which is not compulsory), and disapproval of openness about sex and condoms by the Ministry of Education and parents. Alternative strategies to teach about AIDS had their own constraints. …

  3. Does Education Affect HIV Status? Evidence from five African Countries

    Data from the first five Demographic and Health Surveys to include HIV testing for a representative sample of the adult population are used to analyze the socioeconomic correlates of HIV infection and associated sexual behavior. Emerging from a wealth of country relevant results, some important findings can be generalized. First, successive marriages are a significant risk factor. Second, contrary to prima facie evidence, education is not positively associated with HIV status. …

  4. Evidence, politics and Uganda's HIV success: moving forward with ABC and HIV prevention

    Uganda’s HIV success story has become increasingly focused around the idea of ‘ABC’ (Abstain, Be faithful or use Condoms). During the George W. Bush administration, the US Government has promoted one specific ABC model for its development agencies, with a particular emphasis on abstinence. Yet other actors have contested this view. To understand Uganda’s success, it is imperative to look at what ABC was in Uganda when critical changes in behaviour were occurring. …

  5. Sociodemographic variations in communication on sexuality and HIV/AIDS with parents, family members and teachers among in-school adolescents: a multi-site study in Tanzania and South Africa

    This paper aims to identify with whom in-school adolescents preferred to communicate about sexuality, and to study adolescents' communication on HIV/AIDS, abstinence and condoms with parents/guardians, other adult family members, and teachers. Data were obtained from a baseline questionnaire survey carried out in South Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng) and Tanzania (Dar es Salaam) in early 2004. We analysed data for 14,944 adolescents from 80 randomly selected schools. The mean ages were as follows: CapeTown, 13.38 years (standard deviation (SD). …

  6. They made us who we are today: a retrospective evaluation of the first five-year cohort of the iThemba Lethu HIV Prevention Programme (2002-2006)

    The vision of the iThemba Lethu (isiZulu for "I have a destiny") HIV prevention programme is "to restore the destiny to children whose future is at risk of being negatively impacted by HIV/AIDS". Their goal is to reduce youth risk taking behaviour. The motivation for change is understood as the realisation of self-value and destiny, which, it is posited, provides the backdrop against which HIV/AIDS education can best have a positive effect on behaviour. …

  7. Influence of religious affiliation and education on HIV knowledge and HIV-related sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in rural central Mozambique

    The interactions among religious affiliation, education, HIV knowledge, and HIV-related sexual behaviors among African church youth are poorly understood. In this sociodemographic study, 522 unmarried youth 12-28 years old in rural central Mozambique were surveyed with a structured questionnaire. Using binary logistic regression analysis, the authors used religious affiliation and education to measure influence on (1) HIV transmission and prevention knowledge and attitudes and (2) HIV-related sexual behaviors among youth. …

  8. Learning about HIV/AIDS: our schools, our future, our responsibility

    This booklet is designed to protect teachers and to help them teach and train their colleagues and students about HIV/AIDS and STIs. It includes lots of accurate information, self study tasks and activities teachers could use in their training and teaching. It is written by PNG teachers. It reflects the priorities and policies of the Department of Education.

  9. Curricula Review of Emergency Plan Centrally-Funded HIV Prevention Programs for Youth

    In an effort to mitigate the spread of HIV in developing nations, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supports HIV prevention programs that emphasize abstinence and be faithful for youth (ABY) among a broader array of prevention interventions. The focus of this report is on multi-country, multi-year PEPFAR ABY programs implemented by 14 nongovernmental and faith-based organizations that were awarded a total of $100 million in central funding by the U.S. Agency for International Development's Office of HIV/AIDS at the beginning of PEPFAR. …

  10. Safer choices: preventing HIV, other STD and pregnancy

    This is an in-school HIV, STI and pregnancy prevention programme targeting high-school students. It aims to help young people delay sex initiation and, if they have sex, to use condoms and minimise the number of sexual partners. An important feature of Safer Choices is its school-wide approach. The programme is not limited to an in-class curriculum but also involves teachers, parents, community members and students through a peer leader component. …

  11. Draw the line/respect the line: setting limits to prevent HIV, STD and pregnancy. Grade 8

    This publication is focused on providing students with the skills to define their own sexual limits and to have these limits respected in case of pressure. These "healthy sexual limits" are intended to help keep young people safe from HIV, STIs and pregnancy. The programme is divided into 19 one-hour sessions distributed over three grade levels (Grades 6, 7 and 8) and is designed for in-school use either by a school-teacher or an outside educator. It is especially targeted at Latino students, but has nee used with students of all races/ethnicities. …

  12. Making proud choices! A safer-sex approach to HIV/STDs and teen pregnancy prevention

    This is an eight hour curriculum mainly targeted at minority young people between the ages of 11 and 13. It is divided into eight modules featuring interactive activities such as games, role-play, brainstorming and videos. Developed by a team of experts from the University of Pennsylvania, it is recommended by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This curriculum promotes sexual abstinence as the most effective way to prevent STIs, HIV and teenage pregnancy, but it also places emphasis on safer sex practices and condom use. …

  13. Quasi-experimental evaluation of a national primary school HIV intervention in Kenya

    This study examined the impact of a primary-school HIV education initiative on the knowledge, self-efficacy and sexual and condom use activities of upper primary-school pupils in Kenya. …

  14. The voices of young Zimbabweans. Gender and sexual identities and HIV/AIDS in education

    The Government of Zimbabwe has prioritised the need for better adolescent reproductive health (ARH) to combat HIV/AIDS transmission, reduce teenage pregnancies and the proportion of school dropouts, and ensure equality of health provision to the country's youth. In view of the paucity of information on the identities of adolescents as they construct and experience them themselves, UNICEF ESARO in 2001 commissioned this study on young people in Zimbabwe. …

  15. The voices of young Kenyans. Gender and sexual identities and HIV/AIDS in education

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on the gendered and sexual identities of boys and girls, the influence of these identities on their sexual behaviour, and the status of HIV/AIDS education and life skills materials in Kenya's primary schools. The information gathered will feed into AGEI programmes and HIV/AIDS projects in several sectors, particularly those concerned with improving and strengthening AIDS education in Kenyan schools. The study was conducted in two districts: Garissa in Kenya's remote North Eastern Province, and the capital city Nairobi. …

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