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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Keeping African girls in school with better sanitary care

    For young girls in developing countries, not knowing how to manage their periods can hinder access to education. Research from the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London demonstrates that in rural Uganda, providing free sanitary products and lessons about puberty to girls may increase their attendance at school.

  2. A time for global action: addressing girls' menstrual hygiene management needs in schools

    Summary Points: There is an absence of guidance, facilities, and materials for schoolgirls to manage their menstruation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Formative evidence has raised awareness that poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) contributes to inequity, increasing exposure to transactional sex to obtain sanitary items, with some evidence of an effect on school indicators and with repercussions for sexual, reproductive, and general health throughout the life course. …

  3. An agenda for policy and action to support girls through puberty and menarche

    Puberty and menstruation are a fundamental part of the second decade of girls’ lives. Yet many girls in low and middle-income countries know very little about the physical and emotional changes that are part of growing up. …

  4. Kenya: helping adolescent mothers remain in school through strengthened implementation of school re-entry policies

    The goal of this case study is to document an activity of the STEP UP research programme consortium which resulted in successful evidence utilization. This is to both demonstrate the positive impact STEP UP is having on family planning and reproductive health policies, as well as to document the process by which this was achieved so as to inform future research of successful strategies and lessons learned. …

  5. Adolescent pregnancy and education trajectories in Malawi

    Education is a vital component of the preparation for adulthood, and is closely linked to transitions into marriage and parenting. Childbearing among adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa remains high, while primary school completion is far from universal. This paper uses longitudinal data from five rounds of the Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Study to investigate how becoming pregnant while attending school influences medium-term educational outcomes of young women. …

  6. Rising school enrollment and declining HIV and pregnancy risk among adolescents in Rakai district, Uganda, 1994–2013

    Background: Poverty, family stability, and social policies influence the ability of adolescents to attend school. Likewise, being enrolled in school may shape an adolescent’s risk for HIV and pregnancy. We identified trends in school enrollment, factors predicting school enrollment (antecedents), and health risks associated with staying in or leaving school (consequences). Methods: Data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) were examined for adolescents 15–19 years (n = 21,735 person-rounds) from 1994 to 2013. …

  7. Length of secondary schooling and risk of HIV infection in Botswana: evidence from a natural experiment

    Background An estimated 2.1 million individuals are newly infected with HIV every year. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported conflicting evidence for the association between education and HIV risk, and no randomised trial has identified a causal effect for education on HIV incidence. We aimed to use a policy reform in secondary schooling in Botswana to identify the causal effect of length of schooling on new HIV infection. …

  8. Guidelines on how to enable pregnant school girls to continue with their studies

    The government is developing guidelines/procedures on how to enable pregnant school girls go back to school to continue with their studies. This document will also dwell on how to reduce/eliminate the problem of pregnancies of school girls.

  9. Getting pregnant schoolgirls back to school!

    This brief outlines the current legal situation in Tanzania with respect to attendance of pregnant schoolgirls as well as the benefits of educational attendance for pregnant school girls and young mothers.

  10. Supporting the academic success of pregnant and parenting students under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

    This pamphlet has been prepared for secondary school administrators, teachers, counselors, parents, and students. The first section provides background on school retention problems associated with pregnant and parenting students. The next two sections, “Title IX Requirements Regarding Pregnant and Parenting Students” and “Frequently Asked Questions Pertaining to Title IX Requirements Regarding Pregnant and Parenting Students,” provide information on the law’s specific requirements regarding pregnancy and parenthood. …

  11. Unintended pregnancy and termination of studies among students in Anambra state, Nigeria: are secondary schools playing their part?

    This study evaluated efforts of secondary schools to prevent unintended pregnancy among students and their reactions to pregnant students before and after delivery. A cross-sectional survey of 46 teachers in three public and two private schools in Anambra state, Nigeria was carried out. Information was collected using self-administered questionnaire. Of all the teachers in the study, 87% reported unintended pregnancies among students in the previous 3 years. Expulsion (43%) and suspension (28%) were the most common reactions. …

  12. Measures for the prevention and management of learner pregnancy. Choose to wait for a brighter future

    This document aims to clarify the position of the department of Education regarding learner pregnancies. The measures provide a framework for: educating and assisting learners to understand and exercise their rights and responsibilities in regard to healthy lifestyles; guiding and supporting vulnerable learners; and involving all relevant role-players, and integrating these measures with available systems and structures.

  13. An assessment of the implementation of the re-entry policy for girls in Swaziland: school practices and implications for policy development

    Swaziland has no stand-alone re-entry policy. Practices vary from school to school, but generally a pregnant adolescent girl has to drop out of school although those who become pregnant may be allowed to return to write their exams at the same school or they may be advised to find another examination centre. …

  14. Give us a chance: National study on school-related gender-based violence in Sierra Leone

    The main objective of the study is to contribute to efforts aimed at enhancing children's access to quality basic education and strengthening protection against GBV in and on the way to school. The study seeks to generate reliable data and information on causes, forms, victims and perpetrators of GBV within the school settings, which will inform advocacy and the design of appropriate interventions to reduce incidences of GBV and its impact on educational outcomes. …

  15. The government of Kenya cash transfer for orphaned and vulnerable children: cross-sectional comparison of household and individual characteristics of those with and without

    Background: The ‘Cash Transfer to Orphans and Vulnerable Children’ (CT-OVC) in Kenya is a government-supported program intended to provide regular and predictable cash transfers (CT) to poor households taking care of OVC. CT programs can be an effective means of alleviating poverty and facilitating the attainment of an adequate standard of living for people’s health and well-being and other international human rights. …

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