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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Risk factor or social vaccine? The historical progression of the role of education in HIV and AIDS infection in sub-Saharan Africa

    Numerous epidemiological studies from the early years of the tragic HIV and AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa identified formal education as a risk factor increasing the chance of infection. Instead of playing its usual role as a preventative factor, as has been noted in many other public health cases, until the mid-1990s educated African men and women had a higher risk of contracting HIV than their less educated peers. This led to ambivalent policy about the efficacy of education as a possible social vaccine against new infections in this region. …

  2. HIV and AIDS: responding to a threat to education for sustainable development

    The article seeks to sensitize the development community, particularly outside the education sector, about the issues surrounding education as a vehicle for promoting sustainable development in an AIDS environment in Africa. By illustrating how the epidemic impacts education sector staff as well as parents and students at all levels, the article intends to suggest how national authorities, NGOs and donor agencies can work out strategies to enhance the role of education in promoting sustainable development in Africa. …

  3. Education and vulnerability: the role of schools in protecting young women and girls from HIV in southern Africa

    Education has a potentially important role to play in tackling the spread of HIV, but is there evidence that this potential is realized? This analysis combines the results of previous literature reviews and updates them with the findings of recent randomized controlled trials and a discussion of possible mechanisms for the effect of schooling on vulnerability to HIV infection. There is a growing body of evidence that keeping girls in school reduces their risk of contracting HIV. …

  4. The association between school attendance, HIV infection and sexual behaviour among young people in rural South Africa

    Objectives: To investigate whether the prevalence of HIV infection among young people, and sexual behaviours associated with increased HIV risk, are differentially distributed between students and those not attending school or college. Design: A random population sample of unmarried young people (916 males, 1003 females) aged 14–25 years from rural South Africa in 2001. Methods: Data on school attendance and HIV risk characteristics came from structured face-to-face interviews. HIV serostatus was assessed by oral fluid ELISA. …

  5. Systematic review exploring time trends in the association between educational attainment and risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa

    Objective: To assess the evidence that the association between educational attainment and risk of HIV infection is changing over time in sub-Saharan Africa. Design and methods: Systematic review of published peer-reviewed articles. Articles were identified that reported original data comparing individually measured educational attainment and HIV status among at least 300 individuals representative of the general population of countries or regions of sub-Saharan Africa. …

  6. Children’s school participation and HIV/AIDS in rural Malawi: the role of parental knowledge and perceptions

    Studies of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and children’s educational attainment largely focus on the direct impacts of parental illness and death, overlooking the potential indirect impact that parental knowledge and perceptions of their HIV status may have on children’s school enrollment. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative evidence from Malawi, this paper finds that women’s real and perceived anticipation of future health shocks has a positive impact on their children’s educational attainment. …

  7. Out-of-school and at risk? Socio-demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge and risk perception among young people in Northern Tanzania

    This paper investigates the reasons why young people in urban and rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania do not attend school, their socio-demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge and risk perception. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted with 1007 young people between the ages of 13 and 18. Findings suggest that non-attendance is the product of a complex interaction of economic, individual, family and school-related factors. Boys have more AIDS knowledge than girls, and those from urban areas are more knowledgeable than their rural counterparts. …

  8. Educational attainment and HIV/AIDS prevalence: A cross-country study

    Using data for a large cross-country sample, a reasonable model is estimated to judge the effect of adult educational attainment on prevalence of HIV. Three main points are noted. First, there is an indication of a significantly negative effect of educational attainment on HIV prevalence. Second, magnitude of the impact appears sizable. Third, a simple test suggests that the model does not have any major specification problem. Three additional aspects may also be interesting. First, the impact of per capita income is negative but statistically weak. …

  9. Education status among orphans and non-orphans in communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso

    The AIDS pandemic has created an estimated 15 million orphans who may face elevated risk of poor health and social outcomes. This paper compares orphans and non-orphans regarding educational status and delay using data collected in three low-income communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso. Orphans were significantly more likely not to attend school than were non-orphans and also to be delayed when in school, though, after controlling for confounders, the risk was borderline and non-significant. …

  10. Lack of education in South Asia: the devastating liability to combating HIV/AIDS

    This paper examines the relationship between education and HIV/AIDS with special reference to South Asia. The paper offers an overview of major regional trends in HIV/AIDS. It looks more closely at the links between education and HIV/AIDS as well as lessons learned. The focus here is on global experience to date, although local experience within South Asia is drawn upon where it has been documented. Finally, it considers the implications of HIV/AIDS for education and development within the region - both in relation to the attainment of EFA goals and challenges ahead.

  11. Planning a systemic education response to the needs of orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) in Rwanda

    The objectives of the present study on education provision for OVC, as agreed with MINEDUC and CfBT, were to: Review the categories of OVC and children out of school; Review the identification and description of current education programmes for OVC and out-of-school children; Summarise what is known today of these programmes; Identify unmet needs - and/or changes needed in current OVC education programmes; Note the diversity of children, the diversity of their educational needs, their geographical contexts, social contexts, presence/absence of existing programmes in terms of geographical sprea …

  12. Zimbabwe national strategic plan for the education of girls, orphans and other vulnerable children 2005-2010

    Guided by the overall principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Zimbabwean education act, the national policy on gender, the Orphan Care Policy and National Plan of Action for Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children, the proposed five year National Girls' Education strategic plan aims to accelerate Zimbabwe's progress towards UPE in the context of gender and other social asymmetries in accessing education. …

  13. Looking within: creating community safety nets for vulnerable youth in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

    This case study describes the work of a program implemented by Youth Alive Tanzania, a faith-based organization in Dar-es-Salaam, which created The Youth and Parents Crisis Counseling Center (YOPAC) in 1999. YOPAC was established by Youth Alive with the specific aim of helping children and youth protect their access to education, including primary and secondary education, as well as vocational training. YOPAC's other activities include home-based care, HIV testing and counseling, psychosocial care and support, education, and outreach programming. …

  14. Orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa: findings from a national representative survey

    We examined the association of orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa. In South Africa, school attendance is compulsory through grade 9, which should be completed before age 16. However, family and social factors such as orphanhood and poverty can hinder educational attainment. Participants were 10,452 16-24-year-olds who completed a South African national representative household survey. Overall, 23% had not completed compulsory school levels. …

  15. Compendium Afghanistan: National and international commitments on the equal right of all children to quality education in inclusive and child-friendly settings

    This Compendium brings together in one document all the main conventions, declarations, and laws that support the right of all the children of Afghanistan. It is designed to help ensure that all children are able to realise their right to access quality education in schools that are both inclusive and child-friendly. Inclusive and child-friendly education is a developmental approach seeking to address the individual learning needs of all children, with special focus on those children who are vulnerable to marginalisation from and within the education system.

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