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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Sero-status of preschoolers and disclosure to schools

    Infants with HIV-infection have longevity due to improved Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), making many realise their developmental progression which includes access to schooling. However, there is scant information that focuses on disclosure of their positive sero-status to schools and how these children understand and communicate their illnesses. This paper reports on a study of experiences of children affected by HIV and AIDS in Kenya. …

  2. Another lost generation? The impact of HIV/AIDS on schooling in South Africa

    The South African education system is faced with the difficult task of redressing the inequalities and backlogs created by the racially segregated and unequally resourced apartheid structure. The system is also faced with the responsibility of reintroducing a culture of teaching and learning in the nation’s schools after the anti-apartheid struggle’s ‘freedom now, education later!’ slogan, a time when protest action brought about disruptions in young people’s education, and the much lamented ‘lost generation’. …

  3. Feminist Formations

    Articles from this issue : Girls’ schooling, gender equity, and the global education and development agenda: conceptual disconnections, political struggles, and the difficulties of practice, Situating empowerment for millennial schoolgirls in Gujarat, India and Shaanxi, China, engendering agency: the differentiated impact of educational initiatives in Zambia and India, History transformed?: Gender in World War II narratives in U.S. …

  4. The shrinking world of girls at puberty: violence and gender-divergent access to the public sphere among adolescents in South Africa

    Participatory mapping was undertaken with single-sex groups of grade 5 and grade 8–9 children in KwaZulu-Natal. Relative to grade 5 students, wide gender divergence in access to the public sphere was found at grade 8–9. With puberty, girls' worlds shrink, while boys' expand. At grade 5, female-defined community areas were equal or larger in size than those of males. Community area mapped by urban grade 8–9 girls, however, was only one-third that of male classmates and two-fifths that of grade 5 girls. Conversely, community area mapped by grade 8–9 boys was twice that of grade 5 boys. …

  5. Rising school enrollment and declining HIV and pregnancy risk among adolescents in Rakai district, Uganda, 1994–2013

    Background: Poverty, family stability, and social policies influence the ability of adolescents to attend school. Likewise, being enrolled in school may shape an adolescent’s risk for HIV and pregnancy. We identified trends in school enrollment, factors predicting school enrollment (antecedents), and health risks associated with staying in or leaving school (consequences). Methods: Data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) were examined for adolescents 15–19 years (n = 21,735 person-rounds) from 1994 to 2013. …

  6. Length of secondary schooling and risk of HIV infection in Botswana: evidence from a natural experiment

    Background An estimated 2.1 million individuals are newly infected with HIV every year. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported conflicting evidence for the association between education and HIV risk, and no randomised trial has identified a causal effect for education on HIV incidence. We aimed to use a policy reform in secondary schooling in Botswana to identify the causal effect of length of schooling on new HIV infection. …

  7. Unintended pregnancy and termination of studies among students in Anambra state, Nigeria: are secondary schools playing their part?

    This study evaluated efforts of secondary schools to prevent unintended pregnancy among students and their reactions to pregnant students before and after delivery. A cross-sectional survey of 46 teachers in three public and two private schools in Anambra state, Nigeria was carried out. Information was collected using self-administered questionnaire. Of all the teachers in the study, 87% reported unintended pregnancies among students in the previous 3 years. Expulsion (43%) and suspension (28%) were the most common reactions. …

  8. Exploring experiences of pregnant and mothering secondary school students in Tanzania

    The Constitution of Tanzania grants every child the right to education, yet a girl’s access to education is denied when she becomes pregnant or gives birth. This study explored the experiences of pregnant and mothering students in secondary schools and the community awareness, attitudes and perceptions toward pregnancy policy in Tanzania. It sought insights into parenting students’ challenges, coping strategies, and their suggestions on how to help teen mothers who are returning to school. …

  9. Confronting the impact of HIV and AIDS: the consequences of the pandemics for education supply, demand and quality. A global review from a Southern African perspective

    This article focuses on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and education in countries with different levels of HIV/AIDS prevalence. It concentrates on the sector’s response to school issues, with some attention to teacher training colleges. The survey of experience has concentrated on sub-Saharan Africa, and on Asia and the Pacific, and the lessons that have been learned from high prevalence and low prevalence countries in those regions. The current and anticipated impact of HIV/AIDS on education is analysed in order to clarify probable changes in demand for and supply of education services. …

  10. Menstruation and school absenteeism: Evidence from rural Malawi

    The provision of toilets and menstrual supplies appears to be a promising strategy to promote adolescent girls' school attendance and performance in less developed countries. In this article, we use the first round of the Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Survey (MSAS) to examine the individual- and school-level factors associated with menstruation-related school absenteeism. …

  11. The effect of educational attainment and other factors on HIV risk in South African women: results from antenatal surveillance, 2000-2005

    Objectives: To assess the effect of educational attainment and other factors on the risk of HIV in pregnant South African women. Design: Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Methods: Pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics were tested for HIV annually between 2000 and 2005, and provided demographic information. Logistic regression models were applied separately to the data collected in each year, to identify factors associated with HIV infection. Data from all years were combined in a logistic regression model that tested for trends in HIV prevalence. …

  12. Changes in HIV prevalence among differently educated groups in Tanzania between 2003 and 2007

    Objective: HIV prevalence trends suggest that the epidemic is stable or declining in many sub-Saharan African countries. However, trends might differ between socioeconomic groups. Educational attainment is a common measure of socioeconomic position in HIV datasets from Africa. Several studies have shown higher HIV prevalence among more educated groups, but this may change over time. We describe changes in HIV prevalence by educational attainment in Tanzania from 2003 to 2007. …

  13. Schools Against AIDS: Secondary School Enrollment and Cross-National Disparities in AIDS Death Rates

    Although AIDS is a leading cause of death worldwide, the consequences of the pandemic are remarkably unequally distributed cross-nationally. This unequal global distribution of AIDS deaths should be of interest to sociologists because of the potential role of structural forces in accounting for these disparities. Yet, there has been relatively little sociological research on this topic. Using underutilized cross national data on AIDS deaths, this study examines the macro-level sources of variation in AIDS death rates across 115 countries. …

  14. Does Education Affect HIV Status? Evidence from five African Countries

    Data from the first five Demographic and Health Surveys to include HIV testing for a representative sample of the adult population are used to analyze the socioeconomic correlates of HIV infection and associated sexual behavior. Emerging from a wealth of country relevant results, some important findings can be generalized. First, successive marriages are a significant risk factor. Second, contrary to prima facie evidence, education is not positively associated with HIV status. …

  15. A future of possibilities: Educating children living in HIV impacted households

    Close to one and a half million Kenyans reportedly live with HIV/AIDS. Using qualitative in-depth interviews this study explores the ways in which parents living with HIV/AIDS navigate their social and economic environment to provide educational opportunities for their children. Barriers identified include the economic costs of a free primary education, and the emotional implications of living in an HIV affected household. Respondents demonstrate a persistent utilization of internal and external resources in navigating these barriers. …

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