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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Rethinking sexual agency: proposing a multicomponent model based on young people’s life stories

    Sexual health policies explicitly aim to encourage young people to take responsibility for their sexuality to prevent adverse outcomes such as unintended pregnancies, STIs and sexual assault. In Europe and North America, ‘choice’ has become a central concept in sexual and reproductive health policy making. However, the concept of choice is not unproblematic, not least because the cultural emphasis on individual responsibility obscures structural limitations and inequalities, and mutual responsibility between partners. …

  2. The effects of school-based condom availability programs (CAPs) on condom acquisition, use and sexual behavior: a systematic review

    We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of school-based condom availability programs (CAPs) on condom acquisition, use and sexual behavior. We searched PubMed to identify English-language studies evaluating school-based CAPs that reported process (i.e. number of condoms distributed or used) and sexual behavior measures. We identified nine studies that met our inclusion criteria, with the majority conducted in the United States of America. We judged most studies to have medium risk of bias. …

  3. School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents (Review)

    Background: School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Objectives: To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents.

  4. Nothing as practical as good theory? The theoretical basis of HIV prevention interventions for young people in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review

    This paper assesses the extent to which HIV prevention interventions for young people in sub-Saharan Africa are grounded in theory and if theory-based interventions are more effective. Three databases were searched for evaluation studies of HIV prevention interventions for youth. Additional articles were identified on websites of international organisations and through searching references. 34 interventions were included; 25 mentioned the use of theory. …

  5. An integrative review of comprehensive sex education for adolescent girls in Kenya

    Purpose: The purposes of this article are to identify and review comprehensive sex education programs (CSEPs) available to adolescent females in Kenya, East Africa, to discuss barriers to implementing CSEPs in Kenya, and to highlight the role of nurses in improving and institutionalizing available CSEPs in Kenya. Design: Integrative review. Methods: A systematic search of six databases and other Internet sources was conducted to identify CSEPs currently available to adolescent girls in Kenya. Five CSEPs were identified. The CSEPs were evaluated using established criteria. …

  6. Awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among school-going adolescents in Europe: a systematic review of published literature

    This systematic review looks at levels of STI awareness, knowledge and perceived risk of school-going adolescents in Europe. Fifteen studies were included, all of which cross-sectional and conducted among 13 to 20 year olds. Awareness and knowledge varied depending on gender. Awareness on HIV/AIDS was high (over 90%) but low for HPV (5.4%-66%). While knowledge that condoms protect against STIs was high, adolescents viewed it as an interim contraception method before using the pill. In this study, knowledge did not translate into safer sex behavior change. …

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