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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Education, HIV, and early fertility: experimental evidence from Kenya

    A seven-year randomized evaluation suggests education subsidies reduce adolescent girls’ dropout, pregnancy, and marriage but not sexually transmitted infection (STI). The government’s HIV curriculum, which stresses abstinence until marriage, does not reduce pregnancy or STI. Both programs combined reduce STI more, but cut dropout and pregnancy less, than education subsidies alone. …

  2. Let’s talk about sex: A qualitative study of Rwandan adolescents’ views on sex and HIV

    Objective: This qualitative study explored the views and experiences of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in Kigali, Rwanda, regarding sex, love, marriage, children and hope for the future. Design: The study enrolled 42 adolescents who had received combination antiretroviral therapy for at least 12 months, and a selection of their primary caregivers. Study methods included 3 multiple day workshops consisting of role-playing and focus group discussions (FGDs) with adolescents, 8 in-depth interviews with adolescents, and one FGD with caregivers. …

  3. Commentary: Innovations in Programming for HIV Among Adolescents: Towards an AIDS-Free Generation

    In the effort to halt and reverse the spread of HIV and AIDS among adolescents, public health and medical experts, moral and political authorities across the globe have implemented a combination of interventions. …

  4. An HIV/AIDS knowledge scale for adolescents: item response theory analyses based on data from a study in South Africa and Tanzania

    A 14-item human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge scale was used among school students in 80 schools in 3 sites in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). For each item, an incorrect or don't know response was coded as 0 and correct response as 1. Exploratory factor analyses based on polychoric correlations showed two separate factors for all sites. …

  5. Long-Term Biological and Behavioural Impact of an Adolescent Sexual Health Intervention in Tanzania: Follow-up Survey of the Community-Based MEMA kwa Vijana Trial

    The ability of specific behaviour-change interventions to reduce HIV infection in young people remains questionable. Since January 1999, an adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) intervention has been implemented in ten randomly chosen intervention communities in rural Tanzania, within a community randomised trial (see below; NCT00248469). The intervention consisted of teacher-led, peer-assisted in-school education, youth-friendly health services, community activities, and youth condom promotion and distribution. …

  6. Nothing as practical as good theory? The theoretical basis of HIV prevention interventions for young people in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review

    This paper assesses the extent to which HIV prevention interventions for young people in sub-Saharan Africa are grounded in theory and if theory-based interventions are more effective. Three databases were searched for evaluation studies of HIV prevention interventions for youth. Additional articles were identified on websites of international organisations and through searching references. 34 interventions were included; 25 mentioned the use of theory. …

  7. Multiple sexual partners and condom use among 10-19 year-olds in four districts in Tanzania: What do we learn?

    This study tested a hypothesis that sexual relationships with multiple partners in the 10- to 19-year age group spurs condom use during sex. The authors performed secondary analysis using data from the adolescent module of the cross-sectional household survey on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) that was done in Kigoma, Kilombero, Rufiji and Ulanga districts, Tanzania in 2008. A total of 612 adolescents from a random sample of 1,200 households participated in this study. Pearson Chi-Square was used as a test of association between multiple sexual partners and condom use. …

  8. Do teenagers respond to HIV risk information? Evidence from a field experiment in Kenya

    We use a randomized experiment to test whether and what information changes teenagers' sexual behavior in Kenya. Providing information on the relative risk of HIV infection by partner's age led to a 28 percent decrease in teen pregnancy, an objective proxy for the incidence of unprotected sex. Self-reported sexual behavior data suggests substitution away from older (riskier) partners and toward same-age partners. In contrast, the official abstinence-only HIV curriculum had no impact on teen pregnancy. …

  9. Increased sexual abstinence among in-school adolescents as a result of school health education in Soroti district, Uganda

    A health education program conducted in primary schools in Soroti district, Uganda promoted increased access to information, better peer interactions and better quality of the health education system. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among students in their final year of primary school (average age 14 years) at baseline and two years after introduction of the intervention. The percentage of sexually active students decreased from 42.9% (123 out of 287) to 11.1% (31 out of 280) in the intervention arm, while no changes were observed in the control arm. …

  10. The application of Intervention Mapping in developing and implementing school-based sexuality and HIV/AIDS education in a developing country context: the case of Tanzania

    Effective sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programmes are needed to protect young people against HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy in Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Using a theory- and evidence-based approach and adapting the programmes to local contexts, increases the effectiveness of these programmes. This paper describes and discusses the challenges and opportunities concerning the application of Intervention Mapping (IM) in the development and implementation of a sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programme targeting young people aged 12-14 in Tanzania. …

  11. Sociodemographic variations in communication on sexuality and HIV/AIDS with parents, family members and teachers among in-school adolescents: a multi-site study in Tanzania and South Africa

    This paper aims to identify with whom in-school adolescents preferred to communicate about sexuality, and to study adolescents' communication on HIV/AIDS, abstinence and condoms with parents/guardians, other adult family members, and teachers. Data were obtained from a baseline questionnaire survey carried out in South Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng) and Tanzania (Dar es Salaam) in early 2004. We analysed data for 14,944 adolescents from 80 randomly selected schools. The mean ages were as follows: CapeTown, 13.38 years (standard deviation (SD). …

  12. In the absence of marriage: long-term concurrent partnerships, pregnancy, and HIV risk dynamics among South African young adults

    In KwaZulu/Natal, South Africa, where HIV prevalence is among the world's highest, a longitudinal qualitative study of partnership dynamics and HIV preventive behaviors was conducted. 47 young adults aged 18-24 participated in in-depth interviews, and 29 were re-interviewed 2 years later. Five analytical domains emerged: primary partnerships, love and romance; secondary partnerships; pregnancy/parenthood; condom use/prevention; and contextual influences, including schooling and future aspirations. …

  13. Changes in Knowledge and Attitudes among Junior Secondary Students Exposed to the Family Life and HIV Education Curriculum in Lagos State, Nigeria

    To address the needs of young people in Lagos State, Nigeria, for information about family life and HIV, the Lagos State Ministry of Education, in collaboration with Action Health Incorporated, began to offer the Family Life and HIV Education Curriculum in government junior secondary schools in 2003. Knowledge and attitudes were measured in a sample of 1,366 students in Lagos State, Nigeria, in November 2004, at the beginning of the school year, and again in July 2005 after receiving a year of the Family Life and HIV Education Curriculum. …

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