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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Rethinking sexual agency: proposing a multicomponent model based on young people’s life stories

    Sexual health policies explicitly aim to encourage young people to take responsibility for their sexuality to prevent adverse outcomes such as unintended pregnancies, STIs and sexual assault. In Europe and North America, ‘choice’ has become a central concept in sexual and reproductive health policy making. However, the concept of choice is not unproblematic, not least because the cultural emphasis on individual responsibility obscures structural limitations and inequalities, and mutual responsibility between partners. …

  2. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health programme to address equity, social determinants, gender and human rights in Nepal. Report of the pilot project

    In 2015, World Health Organization worked with the Nepal Ministry of Health to redesign the country’s Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health, through a pilot study utilizing the Innov8 Approach – an 8-step review process geared towards helping health programmes better address gender, equity, human rights and social determinants of health. The aim was to identify the adolescent subpopulations being missed, increase coverages, identify inequities and take a holistic approach to adolescent health and development. …

  3. Growing up unequal: gender and socioeconomic differences in young people’s health and well-being. Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2013/2014 survey

    Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC), a WHO collaborative cross-national study, has provided information about the health, well-being, social environment and health behaviour of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old boys and girls for over 30 years. This latest international report from the study presents findings from the 2013/2014 survey, which collected data from almost 220 000 young people in 42 countries in Europe and North America. …

  4. Accessing the ‘right’ kinds of material and symbolic capital: the role of cash transfers in reducing adolescent school absence and risky behaviour in South Africa

    This article investigates how well South Africa’s Child Support Grant (CSG) responds to the material and psychosocial needs of adolescents, and the resultant effects on schooling and risky behaviour. One driver of schooling decisions is shame related to poverty and the ‘social cost’ of school, where a premium must often be paid for fashionable clothes or accessories. The other driver relates to symbolic and consumptive capital gained through engaging in sexual exchange relationships. The anticipated impacts from the CSG are partial because of these non-material drivers of adolescent choices. …

  5. Hear our voices

    Thousands of girls claim they are embarrassed and ashamed to express the everyday injustices and threats of sexual violence they face, in ‘Hear Our Voices’ - one of the largest studies of adolescent girls’ rights of its kind. Plan International spoke directly with more than 7,000 girls and boys aged 12 to 16 in 11 countries across the world, as part of its Because I am a Girl campaign for girls’ rights. The study’s results bring the daily realities of girls into vivid colour. …

  6. Promoting Equity for Children Living in a World with HIV and AIDS

    This article provides a summary of the evidence at a global level on who is missing out on programming to achieve an "AIDS-free generation." In addition the article provides evidence-based interventions which may be implemented to improve both HIV and equity outcomes. The article raises and explains three key issues and goals: that of eliminating new HIV infections in children and keeping families healthy, that of preventing HIV infections among adolescents and young people, and that of protection, care and support for children affected by HIV/AIDS. …

  7. Income inequality and school bullying: multilevel study of adolescents in 37 countries

    Purpose: To examine the association between income inequality and school bullying in an international sample of preadolescents and to test for mediation of this association by the availability of social support from families, peers, and schools. Methods: The study used economic data from the 2006 United Nations Development Program Human Development Report and survey data from the 2005/2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study which included 66,910 11-year-olds in 37 countries. Ecological correlations tested associations between income inequality and bullying among countries. …

  8. Social outcome expectations regarding delayed sexual debut among adolescents in Mankweng, South Africa

    Aims: To describe outcome expectations related to delayed sexual transition, to examine the dimensionality and internal consistency of such expectations, and to examine variations in social outcome expectations across subgroups defined by demographic variables, indicators of socioeconomic status and predictors related to school and educational ambitions. Methods: Data stem from a survey among school students (grades 8-12) in Mankweng, Limpopo, South Africa (n=5,697). …

  9. Start with a girl. A new agenda for global health. A girls count report on adolescent girls

    Start with a Girl: A New Agenda for Global Health sheds light on the realities of girls' health and wellbeing in developing countries, on the links between the health of girls and the prospects for their families, and on the specific actions that will improve health prospects for millions. This report describes the most prevalent and serious health problems adolescent girls face in developing countries, linking them to a combination of specific public-health risks and social determinants of health. …

  10. Reflexiones sobre la relación entre la "Estrategia Nacional para la Infancia y la Adolescencia" y el modelo de desarrollo de Uruguay hacia el año 2030

    El presente documento ha sido elaborado como uno de los insumos claves para el proceso de discusión que guiará la construcción de la Estrategia Nacional para la Infancia y la Adolescencia 2010-2030 (ENIA). En su primera parte desarrolla la tesis que advierte la existencia de una estrecha relación entre el cumplimiento y la expansión de los Derechos Humanos (civiles, políticos, económicos, sociales y culturales) y el logro de un desarrollo sostenido. …

  11. Reaching the youngest adolescents with reproductive health programs and services

    An article focuses on the emerging needs in providing information and reproductive health services to youth aged 10-14, one of the underserved groups and most subject to abuse and coerced sex. Included also in the paper are suggestions on effective approaches to reach these younger adolescents.

  12. Strategic directions for improving the health and development of children and adolescents

    The document summarizes priority areas for WHO action based on global evidence. Improving the health and development of children and adolescents means that WHO will need to shape its implementation of the strategy to the epidemiological needs of specific regions and countries. The strategy document proposes a flexible, country-specific approach that reflects and respects differences in epidemiology. In addition, it outlines a strategic framework that is based on equity, the life course, and a public health approach. It defines principles to guide the implementation. …

  13. Adolescent' girls' life aspirations and reproductive health in Nepal

    The study described in this paper takes a participatory and positive approach to improving adolescent reproductive health in a rural and urban community in Nepal. It shows that adolescent girls in these communities have dreams and aspirations for a better future and that adults acknowledge and support these ideals. However, social norms and institutions are restrictive, especially for girls, who are often unable to realise their hopes for continuing education, finding better-paid work or delaying marriage and childbearing, and this directly impacts reproductive outcomes. …

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