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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Public support for transgender rights: a twenty-three country survey

    Transgender rights have emerged as a central feature in the discourse on LGBT rights in many countries; however, little is known about public support for such rights around the globe. This report presents findings from a ground-breaking survey of 17,105 adults across 23 countries about their attitudes towards transgender people and transgender rights.

  2. Cross-generational and transactional sexual relations in Uganda: Income poverty as a risk factor for adolescents

    The phenomenon of cross-generational sex – defined as sexual relationships between an adolescent girl and a partner who is older, usually by 10 or more years – can be linked to many life-long consequences. …

  3. Cross-Generational Relationships: Perceived Norms and Practices in Jamaica

    This report from C-Change/FHI 360 documents a study that explored the dynamics of cross-generational relationships in Jamaica, with the aim of informing communication programs working to decrease cross-generational sexual practices and their related risks, including gender-based violence (GBV) and HIV. This study defined cross-generational sex as sexual behavior between two people who are at least 10 years different in age. The authors found that key motivators for participating in these relationships were sexual gratification and emotional and financial support. …

  4. HIV decline in Zimbabwe due to reductions in risky sex? Evidence from a comprehensive epidemiological review

    Recent data from antenatal clinic (ANC) surveillance and general population surveys suggest substantial declines in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in Zimbabwe. We assessed the contributions of rising mortality, falling HIV incidence and sexual behaviour change to the decline in HIV prevalence. Comprehensive review and secondary analysis of national and local sources on trends in HIV prevalence, HIV incidence, mortality and sexual behaviour covering the period 1985-2007. …

  5. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia

    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it.

  6. HIV/AIDS knowledge and behaviour: have information campaigns reduced HIV infection? The case of Kenya

    AIDS continues to have a devastating effect on developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of a proven effective vaccine to stop HIV transmission has led to much of public policy putting an emphasis on information campaigns in order to reduce HIV-prevalence. In this paper we examine the impact of HIV/AIDS-knowledge from two sides. First, we examine to what extent the campaigns have been successful at inducing the expected behavioural change with regards to HIV-related attitudes. Second, we examine the impact of HIV/AIDS knowledge on HIV status. …

  7. Sociodemographic variations in communication on sexuality and HIV/AIDS with parents, family members and teachers among in-school adolescents: a multi-site study in Tanzania and South Africa

    This paper aims to identify with whom in-school adolescents preferred to communicate about sexuality, and to study adolescents' communication on HIV/AIDS, abstinence and condoms with parents/guardians, other adult family members, and teachers. Data were obtained from a baseline questionnaire survey carried out in South Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng) and Tanzania (Dar es Salaam) in early 2004. We analysed data for 14,944 adolescents from 80 randomly selected schools. The mean ages were as follows: CapeTown, 13.38 years (standard deviation (SD). …

  8. On the Right Track: Vietnam Adopts Rights-based Policies for HIV Prevention, Treatment and Care

    Due in part to U.S. assistance on the policy front, the Vietnamese National Assembly enacted a more progressive, health- and rights-oriented national law regarding HIV/AIDS in mid-2006. Significantly, the new law officially endorses an array of specific HIV prevention activities for groups with high-risk behaviors. Ultimately, the policy environment in which donors and NGOs operate appears to be improving dramatically and holds promise for managing the epidemic as long as there is improved coordination among all actors.

  9. A study of the association of HIV infection with wealth in sub-Saharan Africa

    This study examines the association between wealth and HIV serostatus to identify what specific characteristics and behaviors of the wealthier are associated with HIV infection, and to what extent confounding factors such as place of residence and other risk factors mediate this association. This study finds that, contrary to evidence for other infectious diseases and theoretical expectations, in sub-Saharan Africa HIV prevalence is not disproportionately higher among adults living in poorer households. …

  10. Towards adulthood : exploring the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in South Asia

    The publication provides a comprehensive overview of the socio-demographic and sexual and reproductive health situation of adolescents in South Asia, including available evidence about the health risks and challenges that young people face in South Asian countries.

  11. The impact of an adult child's death due to AIDS on older-aged parent: results from a direct interview survey

    The report describes the methodology and findings of a direct interview survey in Thailand of parents of deceased adult children who died of AIDS and a comparison group of older age parents who had not suffered such a loss. The results provide extensive information on living arrangements; parental care giving; health impacts; spouses and orphaned children; care, treatment and funeral expense; longer term economic impacts; and community reaction.

  12. Addressing gender relations in HIV preventive education

    This publication is one of the materials produced by the UNESCO Institute for Education for the project: "Developing Empowering Educational Strategies and Gender-Sensitive IEC (Information, Education and Communication) Materials for HIV Prevention" Their focus is on the educational strategies used outside the school system, which addresses the out-of-school youth and adults. …

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