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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Impact of teachers training on HIV/AIDS education program among secondary school students in Bangladesh: A cross-sectional survey

    In 2007, the Government of Bangladesh incorporated a chapter on HIV/AIDS into the national curriculum for an HIV-prevention program for school students. For the efficient dissemination of knowledge, an intervention was designed to train the teachers and equip them to educate on the topic of HIV/AIDS. The present study intended to understand the impact of this intervention by assessing the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to HIV/AIDS, among the targeted students.

  2. Accessing the ‘right’ kinds of material and symbolic capital: the role of cash transfers in reducing adolescent school absence and risky behaviour in South Africa

    This article investigates how well South Africa’s Child Support Grant (CSG) responds to the material and psychosocial needs of adolescents, and the resultant effects on schooling and risky behaviour. One driver of schooling decisions is shame related to poverty and the ‘social cost’ of school, where a premium must often be paid for fashionable clothes or accessories. The other driver relates to symbolic and consumptive capital gained through engaging in sexual exchange relationships. The anticipated impacts from the CSG are partial because of these non-material drivers of adolescent choices. …

  3. A case study of school support and the psychological, emotional and behavioural consequences of HIV and AIDS on adolescents

    Various studies have reported a huge increase in the numbers of orphaned adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effects on their psychological, emotional and behavioural development. Yet, their needs are seldom recognised or adequately addressed in policy and programmes.This article uses a qualitative study to report the experiences of 11 orphaned adolescents (5 boys and 6 girls aged between 15 and 18 years) affected by HIV and AIDS in a secondary school (in Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa) and the school support provided by them. …

  4. Mediation analysis of an adolescent HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention intervention

    Most interventions designed to prevent HIV/STI/pregnancy risk behaviours in young people have multiple components based on psychosocial theories (e.g. social cognitive theory) dictating sets of mediating variables to influence to achieve desired changes in behaviours. Mediation analysis is a method for investigating the extent to which a variable X (e.g. intervention indicator) influences an outcome variable Y (e.g. unprotected sex) by first influencing an intermediate variable M (e.g. …

  5. The impact of HIV/AIDS on children’s educational outcome: A critical review of global literature

    The number of children losing one or both parents to HIV/AIDS has continued to rise in the past decade, with most of them being school-aged children. This study reviews global literature on the effects of HIV/AIDS (e.g., parental HIV-related illness or death) on children's schooling. Systematic review procedures generated 23 studies for examination. Existing studies show educational disadvantages among children affected by AIDS in various educational outcomes, including school enrollment and attendance, school behavior and performance, school completion, and educational attainment. …

  6. Strengthening the enabling environment for women and girls: what is the evidence in social and structural approaches in the HIV response?

    There is growing interest in expanding public health approaches that address social and structural drivers that affect the environment in which behaviour occurs. Half of those living with HIV infection are women. The sociocultural and political environment in which women live can enable or inhibit their ability to protect themselves from acquiring HIV. …

  7. School based sex education and HIV prevention in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Objectives: School-based sex education is a cornerstone of HIV prevention for adolescents who continue to bear a disproportionally high HIV burden globally. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed the existing evidence for schoolbased sex education interventions in low- and middle-income countries to determine the efficacy of these interventions in changing HIV-related knowledge and risk behaviors. Methods: We searched five electronic databases, PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts, for eligible articles. …

  8. Teacher training and HIV/AIDS prevention in West Africa: regression discontinuity design evidence from the Cameroon

    The authors assess the impact on teenage childbearing as well as student knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of a typical HIV/AIDS teacher training program in the Cameroon. Applying a regression discontinuity design identification strategy based on the key administrative criterion that determined program deployment, they find that 15–17 year old girls in teacher training schools are between 7 and 10 percentage points less likely to have started childbearing, an objective proxy for the incidence of unprotected sex. …

  9. Cost analysis of school-based sexuality education programs in six countries

    Policy-makers who are making decisions on sexuality education programs face important economic questions: what are the costs of developing sexuality education programs; and what are the costs of implementing and scaling them up? This study responds to these questions by assessing the costs of six school-based sexuality education programs (Nigeria, Kenya, Indonesia, India, Estonia and the Netherlands). Cost analyses were carried out in schools that were fully implementing a SE program, as this best reflects the resources needed to run an effective program. …

  10. Postgraduate educational research on violence, gender, and HIV/AIDS in and around schools (1995-2004)

    Social issues such as HIV/AIDS, bullying, and violence have recently come to the fore in schooling and related research in South Africa. This article describes and critically analyses Masters and Ph.D. research done in education in the period 1995–2004, with particular reference to the voice given to social issues, namely: gender, violence, and HIV/AIDS and their interconnectedness. It explores issues, trends, and patterns in research emerging in the first decade of democracy in South Africa.

  11. Evidence, politics and Uganda's HIV success: moving forward with ABC and HIV prevention

    Uganda’s HIV success story has become increasingly focused around the idea of ‘ABC’ (Abstain, Be faithful or use Condoms). During the George W. Bush administration, the US Government has promoted one specific ABC model for its development agencies, with a particular emphasis on abstinence. Yet other actors have contested this view. To understand Uganda’s success, it is imperative to look at what ABC was in Uganda when critical changes in behaviour were occurring. …

  12. Effectiveness of school-based education on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude and behaviour among secondary school students in Wuhan, China

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are among the most complex health problems in the world. Young people are at high risk of HIV and AIDS infections and are, therefore, in need of targeted prevention. School-based HIV/AIDS health education may be an effective way to prevent the spread of AIDS among adolescents. Methods: The study was a school-based intervention conducted in three middle schools and two high schools in Wuhan, China, which included 702 boys and 766 girls, with ages from 11 to 18 years old. …

  13. Do peer educators make a difference? An evaluation of a youth-led HIV prevention model in Zambian schools

    Restless Development's youth-led model places trained Volunteer Peer Educators (VPEs), aged 18-25 years, in schools to teach HIV prevention and reproductive health (RH). VPEs also run youth centers, extracurricular and community-based activities. This evaluation assesses program effects on students' HIV/RH knowledge, attitudes and behaviors using a non-randomized quasi-experimental design among 2133 eighth and ninth grade students in 13 intervention versus 13 matched comparison schools and program costs. …

  14. HIV-related knowledge and stigma among high school students in Libya

    This study aims to measure indicators of HIV-related stigma among students of high schools in the North West of Libya. The results will be part of baseline data and evaluation of the impact of successive interventions. Understanding the behaviour of risk groups in a society, such as young people, is essential in order to draw effective prevention strategies. Behavioural surveillance surveys have been shown to make an important and useful contribution to informing the response to HIV. This study was part of a large Knowledge, Attitude, Beliefs and Practice survey. …

  15. Effects and effectiveness of life skills education for HIV prevention in young people

    For 20 years, “life skills” education has been advocated as a key component of HIV and AIDS education for young people. But what do terms such as life skills imply, and what evidence is there that a life skills-based approach really works? This article reviews the literature on the effects and effectiveness of life skills-based education for HIV prevention. Evaluated interventions were identified by using three search strategies. The review identified a surprising number of rigorously designed and evaluated interventions from Africa, Latin America, Asia, and the Pacific. …

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