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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Accessing the ‘right’ kinds of material and symbolic capital: the role of cash transfers in reducing adolescent school absence and risky behaviour in South Africa

    This article investigates how well South Africa’s Child Support Grant (CSG) responds to the material and psychosocial needs of adolescents, and the resultant effects on schooling and risky behaviour. One driver of schooling decisions is shame related to poverty and the ‘social cost’ of school, where a premium must often be paid for fashionable clothes or accessories. The other driver relates to symbolic and consumptive capital gained through engaging in sexual exchange relationships. The anticipated impacts from the CSG are partial because of these non-material drivers of adolescent choices. …

  2. A case study of school support and the psychological, emotional and behavioural consequences of HIV and AIDS on adolescents

    Various studies have reported a huge increase in the numbers of orphaned adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effects on their psychological, emotional and behavioural development. Yet, their needs are seldom recognised or adequately addressed in policy and programmes.This article uses a qualitative study to report the experiences of 11 orphaned adolescents (5 boys and 6 girls aged between 15 and 18 years) affected by HIV and AIDS in a secondary school (in Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa) and the school support provided by them. …

  3. La prévention du sida en milieu scolaire : pratiques d’enseignants de biologie en France et au Congo

    La prévention du VIH/sida fait partie des programmes de biologie de collège et lycée en France et au Congo. L’enseignant doit transmettre des connaissances scientifiques et amener les élèves à l’adoption volontaire de certains comportements. Ce qui le conduit à assurer un rôle d’acteur de prévention. Comment l’enseignant perçoit-il ce nouveau rôle, quels objectifs se fixe-t-il et quelles méthodes pédagogiques envisage-t-il ? …

  4. Teacher training and HIV/AIDS prevention in West Africa: regression discontinuity design evidence from the Cameroon

    The authors assess the impact on teenage childbearing as well as student knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of a typical HIV/AIDS teacher training program in the Cameroon. Applying a regression discontinuity design identification strategy based on the key administrative criterion that determined program deployment, they find that 15–17 year old girls in teacher training schools are between 7 and 10 percentage points less likely to have started childbearing, an objective proxy for the incidence of unprotected sex. …

  5. Cross-sectional study assessing HIV related knowledge, attitudes and behavior in Namibian public sector employees in capital and regional settings

    The study objective was to assess the current status of HIV knowledge, attitudes and behavior (KAB) among employees of Namibian ministries. As most HIV campaigning takes place in the capital of Windhoek, an additional aim was to compare Windhoek to four regions (Hardap, Erongo, Oshana, and Caprivi). Between January and March 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted in two Namibian ministries, with participants selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on questionnaires. 832 participants were included in the study (51.6% male). …

  6. Cost analysis of school-based sexuality education programs in six countries

    Policy-makers who are making decisions on sexuality education programs face important economic questions: what are the costs of developing sexuality education programs; and what are the costs of implementing and scaling them up? This study responds to these questions by assessing the costs of six school-based sexuality education programs (Nigeria, Kenya, Indonesia, India, Estonia and the Netherlands). Cost analyses were carried out in schools that were fully implementing a SE program, as this best reflects the resources needed to run an effective program. …

  7. Postgraduate educational research on violence, gender, and HIV/AIDS in and around schools (1995-2004)

    Social issues such as HIV/AIDS, bullying, and violence have recently come to the fore in schooling and related research in South Africa. This article describes and critically analyses Masters and Ph.D. research done in education in the period 1995–2004, with particular reference to the voice given to social issues, namely: gender, violence, and HIV/AIDS and their interconnectedness. It explores issues, trends, and patterns in research emerging in the first decade of democracy in South Africa.

  8. Evidence, politics and Uganda's HIV success: moving forward with ABC and HIV prevention

    Uganda’s HIV success story has become increasingly focused around the idea of ‘ABC’ (Abstain, Be faithful or use Condoms). During the George W. Bush administration, the US Government has promoted one specific ABC model for its development agencies, with a particular emphasis on abstinence. Yet other actors have contested this view. To understand Uganda’s success, it is imperative to look at what ABC was in Uganda when critical changes in behaviour were occurring. …

  9. Do peer educators make a difference? An evaluation of a youth-led HIV prevention model in Zambian schools

    Restless Development's youth-led model places trained Volunteer Peer Educators (VPEs), aged 18-25 years, in schools to teach HIV prevention and reproductive health (RH). VPEs also run youth centers, extracurricular and community-based activities. This evaluation assesses program effects on students' HIV/RH knowledge, attitudes and behaviors using a non-randomized quasi-experimental design among 2133 eighth and ninth grade students in 13 intervention versus 13 matched comparison schools and program costs. …

  10. HIV/AIDS knowledge and behaviour: have information campaigns reduced HIV infection? The case of Kenya

    AIDS continues to have a devastating effect on developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of a proven effective vaccine to stop HIV transmission has led to much of public policy putting an emphasis on information campaigns in order to reduce HIV-prevalence. In this paper we examine the impact of HIV/AIDS-knowledge from two sides. First, we examine to what extent the campaigns have been successful at inducing the expected behavioural change with regards to HIV-related attitudes. Second, we examine the impact of HIV/AIDS knowledge on HIV status. …

  11. Social outcome expectations regarding delayed sexual debut among adolescents in Mankweng, South Africa

    Aims: To describe outcome expectations related to delayed sexual transition, to examine the dimensionality and internal consistency of such expectations, and to examine variations in social outcome expectations across subgroups defined by demographic variables, indicators of socioeconomic status and predictors related to school and educational ambitions. Methods: Data stem from a survey among school students (grades 8-12) in Mankweng, Limpopo, South Africa (n=5,697). …

  12. Do stigma, blame and stereotyping contribute to unsafe sexual behaviour? A test of claims about the spread of HIV/AIDS arising from social representation theory and the AIDS risk reduction model

    In the context of social representation theory and the AIDS risk reduction model, it has been claimed that stigmatizing, blaming and stereotyping attitudes make people feel less at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS, and that this, in turn, results in them taking fewer precautions in their sexual behaviour. Previous research has failed to provide convincing evidence to support these claims. The present study provided a test of the claims that addressed some of the methodological issues identified in the earlier research. …

  13. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Study on Reproductive Health Among Secondary School Students in Bolgatanga, Upper East Region, Ghana

    This study was conducted within the secondary school student population of the Bolgatanga community, in Northern Ghana, to learn about knowledge, attitude and practices of reproductive health of this adolescent student population. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected on adolescence perception, STIs and HIV/AIDS, family planning, male-female relationship, and vulnerability to sexual violence. …

  14. Perceptions, attitudes et pratiques des universités burkinabé face aux personnes vivant avec le VIH/SIDA

    La découverte du VIH, de même que la notification des premiers cas de séropositifs au monde entier ont été faites par les intellectuels. Au regard de l'immensité culturelle et l'esprit de discernement d'analyse qui caractérisent les universités, on pourrait penser que le milieu intellectuel universitaire est le cadre par excellence d'expression des attitudes rationnelles face au VIH/SIDA et aux personnes vivant avec le virus. Contrairement à cela, la lutte contre le Sida ne constitue pas une préoccupation majeure dans les universités du Burkina Faso. …

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