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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Structural drivers and social protection: mechanisms of HIV risk and HIV prevention for South African adolescents

    Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can “cash plus care” social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV risks and then examining potential main and moderating effects of social protection in South Africa.

  2. Co-financing HIV programmes improves overall development results

    This brief provides evidence-backed advice to policymakers on how to get greater impact from HIV financing. RethinkHIV is a new research initiative, funded by the Rush Foundation, that aims to conduct and evaluate cutting-edge research to inform long-term planning and resource-allocation for the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS.

  3. Can money prevent the spread of HIV? A review of cash payments for HIV prevention

    Cash payments to improve health outcomes have been used for many years; however, their use for HIV prevention is new and the impact not yet well understood. We provide a brief background on the rationale behind using cash to improve health outcomes, review current studies completed or underway using cash for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, and outline some key considerations on the use of cash payments to prevent HIV infections. We searched the literature for studies that implemented cash transfer programs and measured HIV or HIV-related outcomes. …

  4. Social protection and cash transfers to strengthen families affected by HIV and AIDS

    Based on a review of over 300 documents, this monograph examines how social protection can be used to protect children and families affected by HIV and AIDS. It reviews evidence on the impacts of 10 unconditional cash transfer (UCT) programs in southern and East Africa and 10 conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs in Latin America. …

  5. Key findings from the Botswana HIV information needs assessment

    This programme, which is part of the Southern Africa HIV Knowledge Management Initiative, aims to increase the dissemination and use of accurate, evidence-based, and up-to-date information in order to improve HIV prevention in the region. The objectives of the 2009 Botswana needs assessment were to : explore current HIV knowledge management systems and resources at the national and regional levels; Identify areas for improvement; Contribute to an analysis of future opportunities and directions for the regional knowledge management initiative; HIV prevention was a special focus.

  6. An action guide for gender equality in national HIV plans: catalyzing change through evidence-based advocacy

    A growing body of evidence links HIV risk with women's social and economic inequality, male norms that drive sexual risk, and the social marginalization of individuals whose sexual identity or behavior is perceived to fall outside accepted norms. In recognition of this, many international donor agencies are funding programs that aim to reduce gender inequality as a driver of the epidemic. HIV service providers are already responding with innovative and often courageous strategies for overcoming gender-based drivers of the epidemic. But more is needed at the national level. …

  7. HIV/AIDS: the Polish policy 1985-2005

    This publication, the Polish Policy on HIV/AIDS Prevention in 1985-2005 is the fruit of efforts of all groups which have been directly involved in the HIV/AIDS actions since the beginning of the epidemics. The authors are researchers, people working on social issues as well as representatives of non governmental organizations. The Policy gathers those, who day after day put their efforts in common to counteract HIV/ AIDS, which is not only a medical issue, but also a social, economical and for some countries a political challenge. …

  8. Social cash transfers to support children and families affected by HIV/AIDS

    In response to the critical need of affected children and families, the compelling evidence for their benefits, and the receptive environment on the part of governments and donors, several local and international organizations are piloting cash transfers programmes as a mechanism to mitigate the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on affected communities in sub- Saharan Africa. Few programmes, however, are conceptualized or implemented within a broader framework of social protection, socioeconomic development or human rights. …

  9. AIDS is Money: how donor preferences reconfigure local realities

    There is growing concern that the global response to AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is compromising the region's human development more broadly. Through a case study of Malawi, I examine the impact of AIDS prioritization by international donors on the country's NGOs and analyze why AIDS wields such influence on development work. In the last 20 years the Malawian NGO sector has evolved to favor AIDS above all else. AIDS has come to possess prestige and legitimacy that other development sectors are denied. …

  10. Is there an association between PEPFAR funding and improvement in national health indicators in Africa? A retrospective study

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) was reauthorized in June 2008 with a threefold increase in funds, and a broader, more explicit mandate to improve health in the low- and middle-income countries that it funded. However, the ability of a disease-specific, or vertical, programme to have a spill-over effect and improve health outcomes has been questioned. …

  11. Kenya's cash transfer program: protecting the health and human rights of orphans and vulnerable children

    In Kenya, as in other countries of sub-Saharan Africa heavily burdened by HIV/ AIDS, orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) face poverty and despair. There is an urgent need to provide a comprehensive response that supports families and communities in their efforts to care for children and safeguard their rights. The government of Kenya has established a cash transfer program that delivers financial and social support directly to the poorest households containing OVC, with special concern for those children with or affected by HIV/AIDS. …

  12. Resource needs for an expanded HIV response: HIV costing and modeling tools

    The Resource Needs Model (RNM) is an Excel-based tool used to calculate the total resources needed at national and decentralized levels for HIV-related prevention and care, as well as support for orphans and vulnerable children. The RNM can help inform national- and district-level budgeting and strategic planning efforts; it estimates: the resources needed for interventions that aim to achieve expected coverage of a particular population using default unit costs; and resource implications of extending interventions and coverage and introducing unit cost changes.

  13. The RESPECT study: evaluating conditional cash transfers for HIV/STI prevention in Tanzania

    The RESPECT (Rewarding STI Prevention and Control in Tanzania) study is a randomized controlled trial testing the hypothesis that a system of rapid feedback and positive reinforcement using cash as the primary incentive can be used to reduce risky sexual activity among young people, male and female, who are at high risk of HIV infection. Results indicate that financial incentives - conditional cash transfers paid if the study participants remained negative for a set of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - could be an effective prevention tool for STIs and possibly HIV.

  14. Increasing and improving multilateral development banks' funding for reproductive health and HIV/AIDS: a toolkit for advocacy

    This toolkit is intended for MDB-watchers, women's groups, affected communities, MDBs and other donors, and all stakeholders interested in (a) gaining information that may benefit their projects, particularly those focusing on improving reproductive health and HIV/AIDS services in the poorest communities of the world; (b) building their capacity to persuade MDBs to promote gender equality in all their reproductive health and HIV/AIDS investments; and (c) contributing to increasing and improving MDB spending on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS. …

  15. Costing of Tanzania's national multi-sectoral strategic framework (NMSF) on HIV and AIDS 2008-2012 process report

    The report covers the costing of the National Multi-Sectoral Framework (2008-2012) under four themes namely; enabling environment; care, treatment and support, prevention and impact mitigation including monitoring, evaluation and research; organizational and institutional arrangements of the implementation of the national response at central, regional and LGAs levels; financial, human and technical resource framework of the response; and operationalization and implementations of the strategic framework.

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