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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Learners’ perspectives on the provision of condoms in South African public schools

    A stubborn health challenge for learners in South African public schools concerns sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). In 2015, the Department of Basic Education (DBE) proposed the provision of condoms and SRHR-services to learners in schools. This study aimed to contribute to the finalisation and implementation of DBE’s policy by exploring learners’ perspectives on the provision of condoms and SRHR-services in schools. …

  2. A farewell to abstinence and fidelity? Comment

    Sex has regularly proven to be a polarising issue for the UN Member States, and the 2016 High-Level Meeting on Ending AIDS on June 8–10 was no exception. The Political Declaration adopted at the meeting addresses the sexual health needs of young people (15–24 years), including adolescents (11–19 years). 2000 new HIV infections occur among young people every day. HIV is the leading cause of death among adolescents in Africa, and the second-highest cause of death worldwide in this age group. …

  3. State variation in HIV/AIDS health outcomes: the effect of spending on social services and public health

    Objective: Despite considerable advances in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, the burden of new infections of HIV and AIDS varies substantially across the country. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between increased healthcare spending and better HIV/AIDS outcomes; however, less is known about the association between spending on social services and public health spending and HIV/AIDS outcomes. …

  4. Zimbabwe's national AIDS levy: a case study

    Background: The authors conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund (‘AIDS Levy’) as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Methods: Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the Zimbabwe National AIDS Council (NAC), and key informant interviews with representatives of the Zimbabwean government, civil society and international organizations. Findings: The literature search yielded 139 sources, and 20 key informants were interviewed. …

  5. International networking for sexuality education: a politically sensitive subject

    In 2007, six countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay) commenced work on a project to harmonise public policy on school sexuality education (SE) and the prevention of HIV. Inter-sectoral management committees for SE involving ministries of education, ministries of health and civil society were established, national policies and work plans were formulated and implemented, and SE/HIV prevention activities were carried out. The strengths and weaknesses of implementation were assessed. …

  6. HIV/AIDS program in Jharkhand: a critical review

    This article is an attempt to present and elaborate the HIV/AIDS scenario in Jharkhand state of India, services available, key issues, challenges, and concerns at various levels to mitigate the epidemic. It also examines the role of different stakeholders and agencies in halting and reversing the epidemic. The findings show that there are various challenges that need immediate attention. The article critically examines these issues in detail and suggests the approach to address the epidemic.

  7. Challenges and opportunities in HIV/AIDS counseling: a case of Jharkhand

    The study highlights the challenges and opportunities in HIV/AIDS counseling. The major challenges are recruiting the right individuals and their capacity building and retention. The finding shows that most of the counselors are not befitting in terms of qualification and experience besides motivation, remuneration, and other issues. The study suggests that to ensure the effective counseling to reverse the epidemic, it is important to focus on such issues through appropriate policy interventions.

  8. Bridging theory and practice in HIV prevention for rural youth, Nigeria

    Thirty years into combating the spread of HIV through behaviour change interventions experience has grown in the application of multiple approaches from one-for-one counseling and small group workshops, information sessions, and activities to large-scale rallies and mass media campaigns with reducing the spread of HIV. These approaches have been variously guided by best field practice and theoretical frameworks developed to understand health-related behaviours and behaviour change. …

  9. Teaching and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic: A School Case Study

    Background: This paper reports case study findings on how a school in Tanzania is attempting to integrate HIV/AIDS education. Methods: Interviews were held with the principal, 8 teachers, 8 pupils, the school nurse and 4 parents; observation of school environment and document analysis of posters, text books and school calendar was carried out to see evidence of HIV/AIDS activities in the school. Results: HIV/AIDS is integrated in the school curricula and some teachers have incorporated participatory pedagogy. However teachers lack support and teaching materials. …

  10. University students and HIV in Namibia: an HIV prevalence survey and a knowledge and attitude survey

    With an overall adult HIV prevalence of 15.3%, Namibia is facing one of the largest HIV epidemics in Africa. Young people aged 20 to 34 years constitute one of the groups at highest risk of HIV infection in Namibia. However, little is known about the impact of HIV on this group and its access to healthcare. The purpose of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence, to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS, and to assess access to healthcare among university students in Namibia.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviors among Jamaican adolescents

    Despite high levels of sexual activity and risk behaviors among Jamaican youth, few population-based studies have examined their prevalence or correlates. The prevalence of three sexual risk behaviors was assessed using data from the 2008-2009 Jamaican Reproductive Health Survey on a subsample of adolescents aged 15-19 who neither were in a union nor had a child. Factors associated with the risk behaviors were examined separately for females and males, using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. …

  12. Using research to influence sexual and reproductive health practice and implementation in Sub-Saharan Africa: a case-study analysis

    Research institutions and donor organizations are giving growing attention to how research evidence is communicated to influence policy. In the area of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV there is less weight given to understanding how evidence is successfully translated into practice. Policy issues in SRH can be controversial, influenced by political factors and shaped by context such as religion, ethnicity, gender and sexuality. …

  13. Is there an association between PEPFAR funding and improvement in national health indicators in Africa? A retrospective study

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) was reauthorized in June 2008 with a threefold increase in funds, and a broader, more explicit mandate to improve health in the low- and middle-income countries that it funded. However, the ability of a disease-specific, or vertical, programme to have a spill-over effect and improve health outcomes has been questioned. …

  14. Social outcome expectations regarding delayed sexual debut among adolescents in Mankweng, South Africa

    Aims: To describe outcome expectations related to delayed sexual transition, to examine the dimensionality and internal consistency of such expectations, and to examine variations in social outcome expectations across subgroups defined by demographic variables, indicators of socioeconomic status and predictors related to school and educational ambitions. Methods: Data stem from a survey among school students (grades 8-12) in Mankweng, Limpopo, South Africa (n=5,697). …

  15. Young People's Sexual and Reproductive Health in the Middle East and North Africa

    This article brief highlights some of the study's findings and recommendations about the concerns and needs of young people, along with other research results from the region.

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