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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Sexuality education in rural Lesotho schools: challenges and possibilities

    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss some of the obstacles to effective sexuality education in rural Lesotho schools and offer some suggestions that could facilitate positive change in the current status of sexuality education. The call for education as a ‘vaccine’ against new HIV infections places teachers at the forefront of the fight against the pandemic, and thus it is imperative to understand how they experience teaching about sexuality. …

  2. Exploring the opinions of parents and teachers about young people receiving puberty and sex education in rural Kenya: a qualitative study

    In Kenya, one of the most significant public health concerns is the spread of HIV. Additionally, 13,000 girls drop out of school every year due to pregnancy. Although the Kenyan Ministry of Education and other independent organisations have tried to implement various means of developing puberty and sexual health education for young people, the situation is not improving. Aims: To explore the opinions of teachers and parents in rural Kenya about delivering puberty and sex education and to identify their perceptions of barriers to young people accessing this education. …

  3. Factors shaping the HIV-competence of two primary schools in rural Zimbabwe

    We present multi-method case studies of two Zimbabwean primary schools – one rural and one small-town. The rural school scored higher than the small-town school on measures of child well-being and school attendance by HIV-affected children. The small-town school had superior facilities, more teachers with higher morale, more specialist HIV/AIDS activities, and an explicit religious ethos. The relatively impoverished rural school was located in a more cohesive community with a more critically conscious, dynamic and networking headmaster. …

  4. Staff and students' perception of an HIV/AIDS' strategy: A case study of a South African rural-based university

    Background: South African communities have high rates of people living with HIV and AIDS. Universities, particularly those in rural regions are examples of communities noted to be high risk areas of these infections. HIV/AIDS strategies were developed and implemented by higher education institutions to address this concern. Despite this, the prevalence and incidence of HIV and AIDS remain high in academic settings. Yet studies in this area in South Africa are rare. …

  5. Emma says: A case study of the use of comics for health education among women in the AIDS heartland

    The purpose of this paper is to examine one mass media AIDS education project, the Emma Says comic series. Created by an international health research organization based in the USA, the series was designed to educate women in rural Africa about the need to protect themselves from AIDS. The Emma Says series aimed to deliver powerful messages about AIDS in an easy-to-understand format using the caricature of an African woman working as a health educator in her community. …

  6. Implementation of adolescent-friendly voluntary medical male circumcision using a school based recruitment program in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Background: Epidemiological data from South Africa demonstrate that risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in males increases dramatically after adolescence. Targeting adolescent HIV-negative males may be an efficient and cost-effective means of maximising the established HIV prevention benefits of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in high HIV prevalence–, low circumcision practice–settings. This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting male high school students for VMMC in such a setting in rural KwaZulu-Natal. …

  7. What can a teacher do with a cellphone? Using participatory visual research to speak back in addressing HIV and AIDS

    The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. …

  8. The provision of a health promoting environment for HIV/AIDS education: the case of Namibian senior secondary schools

    HIV/AIDS programmes in schools ultimately intend to decrease high risk sexual behaviour. One factor facilitating this outcome is a strong health promoting environment in the school. This paper reports a study surveying the health promoting environments supporting HIV/AIDS education in Namibian senior secondary schools. It develops a two dimensional model for classifying the strength of a school’s health promoting environment. The findings show that schools have different strengths of health promoting environments linked more to their size than to a rural or urban location. …

  9. Cross-sectional study assessing HIV related knowledge, attitudes and behavior in Namibian public sector employees in capital and regional settings

    The study objective was to assess the current status of HIV knowledge, attitudes and behavior (KAB) among employees of Namibian ministries. As most HIV campaigning takes place in the capital of Windhoek, an additional aim was to compare Windhoek to four regions (Hardap, Erongo, Oshana, and Caprivi). Between January and March 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted in two Namibian ministries, with participants selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on questionnaires. 832 participants were included in the study (51.6% male). …

  10. Parent-child communication about sexual and reproductive health in rural Tanzania: Implications for young people's sexual health interventions

    Background: Many programmes on young people and HIV/AIDS prevention have focused on the in-school and channeled sexual and reproductive health messages through schools with limited activities for the young people's families. The assumption has been that parents in African families do not talk about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) with their children. These approach has had limited success because of failure to factor in the young person's family context, and the influence of parents. …

  11. HIV prevention for rural youth in Nigeria: Background overview

    The negative impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a major challenge to sub-Saharan Africa. Although the rate of new HIV infections in sub-continent has decreased, the total number of people living with HIV continues to rise. Most of the people infected with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa are within the age bracket of 15 to 35 years. It has been estimated that about 80% of the infected group are aged 20-29 years. …

  12. Bridging theory and practice in HIV prevention for rural youth, Nigeria

    Thirty years into combating the spread of HIV through behaviour change interventions experience has grown in the application of multiple approaches from one-for-one counseling and small group workshops, information sessions, and activities to large-scale rallies and mass media campaigns with reducing the spread of HIV. These approaches have been variously guided by best field practice and theoretical frameworks developed to understand health-related behaviours and behaviour change. …

  13. Gender, peer and partner influences on adolescent HIV risk in rural South Africa

    In preparation for a school-based intervention in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, the authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of potential HIV risk factors in youth ages 14–17 (n=983). Boys were significantly more likely than girls to report lifetime sexual activity (37.7% v. 13.8%, P<0.01). Among boys and girls, 46.1% reported condom use at last sex. Discussion of condom use with a partner was the strongest predictor of condom use (boys, odds ratio (OR)=7.39; girls, OR=5.58, P<0.0001). …

  14. Young people and sexual agency in rural Uganda

    Drawing on definitions of agency from within the international development literature, the author focuses on decision-making processes leading to young people's involvement in relationships; actions undertaken to maintain secret relationships in contexts where young people's sexual agency is generally prohibited; transactional and gendered negotiations between young people involved within a relationship; and a range of outcomes arising from young people's sexual activity. …

  15. The association between school attendance, HIV infection and sexual behaviour among young people in rural South Africa

    Objectives: To investigate whether the prevalence of HIV infection among young people, and sexual behaviours associated with increased HIV risk, are differentially distributed between students and those not attending school or college. Design: A random population sample of unmarried young people (916 males, 1003 females) aged 14–25 years from rural South Africa in 2001. Methods: Data on school attendance and HIV risk characteristics came from structured face-to-face interviews. HIV serostatus was assessed by oral fluid ELISA. …

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