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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Situational analysis on the status of the sexual and reproductive health of students in tertiary institutions in the SADC region

    It is a hardy perennial of the university environment that normative consensus around large global issues such as sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) is easier to secure than the programmatic requisites. Thus, in principle, tertiary education students are included in international SRHR-related declarations and domestic policies pertaining to the education and health sectors; in practice, there is often a lack of programmatic and policy attention at institutional level, as well as a marked knowledge gap over the status of student’s sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs.

  2. Situational analysis on the status of sexual and reproductive health of students and gender-based violence in technical and vocational colleges in Malawi

    UNESCO commissioned a study to conduct a situational analysis on the status of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of students and gender-based violence (GBV) in technical and vocational colleges (TVCs) in Malawi operating under the Technical, Entrepreneurship and Vocational (TEVET) system. The methodology comprised of a desk review, survey, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. …

  3. A sexual and reproductive health peer education programme for girls in grades 7 to 9. Mentor’s manual

    This sexual and reproductive health (SRH) peer education programme was developed as part of the Department of Basic Education’s (DBE) Leveraging Partnerships to Achieve the Goals of South Africa’s HIV & AIDS and STI National Strategic Plan 2012–16, otherwise known as Keeping Girls in School. The aim of this component of the programme is to shift social norms and change sexual behaviour by reinforcing and supporting the SRH messages received via the curriculum in order to increase retention and reduce the risk of HIV infection and teenage pregnancy.

  4. Investigating risky sexual behaviours among youth in the context of the HIV epidemic in Mbeya region, Tanzania

    Mitigating HIV and AIDS among youth has been a major policy agenda both internationally and nationally, within Tanzania. Two concerns associated with mitigation efforts are increasing sexual activity at young ages and a burgeoning population of out-of-school youth whom poverty, lack of supervision, and unemployment seem to push into alternative life patterns that present risks to their health. This situation poses a serious challenge for Tanzania, where half the population is categorised as young.

  5. Learners’ perspectives on the provision of condoms in South African public schools

    A stubborn health challenge for learners in South African public schools concerns sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). In 2015, the Department of Basic Education (DBE) proposed the provision of condoms and SRHR-services to learners in schools. This study aimed to contribute to the finalisation and implementation of DBE’s policy by exploring learners’ perspectives on the provision of condoms and SRHR-services in schools. …

  6. National adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights framework strategy 2014 - 2019

    The National ASRH&R Framework Strategy on ASRH&R is based on a holistic review of the three lead documents (National Report on Factors Associated with Teenage Pregnancy in South Africa (2014), Background Resource Document on the State of ASRH&R in South Africa (2012), Report on Consultative Workshop with Stakeholders on ASRH&R (2012) discussed in section 5) which identified gaps and issues of ASRH&R that deserved further attention. …

  7. Strengthening the protection of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the African region through human rights

    Strengthening the protection of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the African region through human rights uses rights-based frameworks to address some of the serious sexual and reproductive health challenges that the African region is currently facing. More importantly, the book provides insightful human rights approaches on how these challenges can be overcome. The book is the first of its kind. …

  8. Promoting sexual and reproductive health among adolescents in southern and eastern Africa (PREPARE): project design and conceptual framework

    Background: Young people in sub-Saharan Africa are affected by the HIV pandemic to a greater extent than young people elsewhere and effective HIV-preventive intervention programmes are urgently needed. The present article presents the rationale behind an EU-funded research project (PREPARE) examining effects of community-based (school delivered) interventions conducted in four sites in sub-Saharan Africa. One intervention focuses on changing beliefs and cognitions related to sexual practices (Mankweng, Limpopo, South Africa). …

  9. Implementation of adolescent-friendly voluntary medical male circumcision using a school based recruitment program in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Background: Epidemiological data from South Africa demonstrate that risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in males increases dramatically after adolescence. Targeting adolescent HIV-negative males may be an efficient and cost-effective means of maximising the established HIV prevention benefits of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in high HIV prevalence–, low circumcision practice–settings. This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting male high school students for VMMC in such a setting in rural KwaZulu-Natal. …

  10. Project evaluation: HIV/AIDS Prevention and Promotion of Adolescent Sexual Reproductive Health

    In Ethiopia Save the Children Sweden (SCS) works to promote children's rights through advocacy, direct support, capacity building, research and awareness raising. In line with this, it has been supporting six local partner organisations whose implementation area is in Addis Ababa. Hiwot Ethiopia is one of the local partners of SCS working on HIV prevention and promotion of adolescent sexual reproductive health with the major objective of inducing behavioral change among in and out of school youth. …

  11. Long-Term Biological and Behavioural Impact of an Adolescent Sexual Health Intervention in Tanzania: Follow-up Survey of the Community-Based MEMA kwa Vijana Trial

    The ability of specific behaviour-change interventions to reduce HIV infection in young people remains questionable. Since January 1999, an adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) intervention has been implemented in ten randomly chosen intervention communities in rural Tanzania, within a community randomised trial (see below; NCT00248469). The intervention consisted of teacher-led, peer-assisted in-school education, youth-friendly health services, community activities, and youth condom promotion and distribution. …

  12. What they really want to know. Developing booklets for young people on growing up and sexuality

    A large proportion of young people worldwide are sexually active, and this exposes them to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and to the risk of unintended pregnancies. In 2008, 16 million girls aged 15 to 19 gave birth and approximately 40% of these pregnancies were unintended. Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years account for more than one third of all new HIV infections, with some 3,000 young people becoming infected with HIV each day. …

  13. Sexual coercion among in-school adolescents in Rwanda: prevalence and correlates of victimization and normative acceptance

    Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to sexual coercion, as victim as well as perpetrator. This paper aims to adapt sexual and reproductive health interventions to the reality of young people’s sexuality and relationships. This study assesses the prevalence of forced sex, characteristics of victims and norms regarding sexual coercion among Rwandan adolescents. A survey was completed by 285 senior secondary school students and four focus groups were conducted. Of sexually active respondents, 15.5% reported forced sexual intercourse. …

  14. Young people and sexual agency in rural Uganda

    Drawing on definitions of agency from within the international development literature, the author focuses on decision-making processes leading to young people's involvement in relationships; actions undertaken to maintain secret relationships in contexts where young people's sexual agency is generally prohibited; transactional and gendered negotiations between young people involved within a relationship; and a range of outcomes arising from young people's sexual activity. …

  15. The impact of television and radio on reproductive behavior and on HIV/AIDS knowledge and behavior

    This is a study of the association of radio and television exposure with different aspects of reproductive behavior and with knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in connection with HIV/AIDS. The measures of mass media are limited to the frequency that women and men report listening to the radio and watching television, which are standard questions in the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Only the frequency is assessed; the DHS does not obtain information on programmatic content. …

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