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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Education, HIV, and early fertility: experimental evidence from Kenya

    A seven-year randomized evaluation suggests education subsidies reduce adolescent girls’ dropout, pregnancy, and marriage but not sexually transmitted infection (STI). The government’s HIV curriculum, which stresses abstinence until marriage, does not reduce pregnancy or STI. Both programs combined reduce STI more, but cut dropout and pregnancy less, than education subsidies alone. …

  2. Effect of a cash transfer programme for schooling on prevalence of HIV and herpes simplex type 2 in Malawi: a cluster randomised trial

    Lack of education and an economic dependence on men are often suggested as important risk factors for HIV infection in women. The authors assessed the efficacy of a cash transfer programme for schooling to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections in young women. Based on their findings the authors conclude that cash transfer programmes can reduce HIV and HSV-2 infections in adolescent schoolgirls in low-income settings. Structural interventions that do not directly target sexual behaviour change can be important components of HIV prevention strategies.

  3. Engaging school personnel in making schools safe for girls in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to protect them. This study evaluates a program aimed at making schools safe for girl learners in order to reduce girls’ vulnerability to HIV in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. In addition to an extensive process evaluation with school personnel program participants, program facilitators, and community members, a cross-sectional post-intervention survey was conducted among adolescent girls in the three countries. The total sample size was 1249 adolescent girls (ages 11–18). …

  4. Education, HIV, and early fertility: experimental evidence from Kenya

    We provide experimental evidence on the relationships between education, HIV/AIDS education, risky behavior and early fertility in Kenya. We exploit randomly assigned variation in the cost of schooling and in exposure to the national HIV/AIDS prevention curriculum for a cohort of over 19,000 adolescents in Western Kenya, originally aged 13.5 on average. We collected data on the schooling, marriage, and fertility out-comes of these students over 7 years, and tested them for HIV and Herpes (HSV2) after 7 years. …

  5. Impact of HIV/AIDS education programmes on sexual behaviour of female students in Nigerian schools: Policy implications for scientific and technolgical development

    This study investigated the impact of HIV/AIDS education programmes on sexual behaviors of female students in senior secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria. The population for the study comprised of all senior secondary schools female students in Nigeria, which was divided into urban and rural schools. The sample size was 200 female students obtained by using stratified random sampling technique. …

  6. Education and vulnerability: the role of schools in protecting young women and girls from HIV in southern Africa

    Education has a potentially important role to play in tackling the spread of HIV, but is there evidence that this potential is realized? This analysis combines the results of previous literature reviews and updates them with the findings of recent randomized controlled trials and a discussion of possible mechanisms for the effect of schooling on vulnerability to HIV infection. There is a growing body of evidence that keeping girls in school reduces their risk of contracting HIV. …

  7. Using participatory research and action to address the HIV-related vulnerabilities of adolescent girls in Tanzania

    Globally, girls and young women are more likely to be HIV positive than their male peers, due in large part to an array of gender inequalities that negatively impact their mental and physical well being. Protecting girls from this multi-dimensional risk requires first understanding how the girls experience vulnerability in their daily lives and developing solutions that are actionable within the community context. …

  8. Piecing it together for women and girls. The gender dimensions of HIV-related stigma: evidence from Bangladesh, the Dominican Republic and Ethiopia

    This report focuses on the gender dimensions of HIV-related stigma. It aims to fill a gap and advance a more nuanced understanding and more effective advocacy on how stigma affects women and girls living with HIV more, less or differently to men and boys. This is an advocacy tool for use by relevant stakeholders - from international donors to global policy makers, national governments, programme managers, civil society and people living with HIV. …

  9. Research dossier: HIV prevention for girls and young women in Kenya

    This Research Dossier supports the Report Card on HIV Prevention for Girls and Young Women in Kenya produced by the United Nations Global Coalition on Women and AIDS (GCWA). It documents the detailed research coordinated for the GCWA by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Program on AIDS (UNAIDS) and Young Positives. The Report Card provides an "at a glance" summary of the current status of HIV prevention strategies and services for girls and young women in Kenya. …

  10. Understanding adolescent girls' protection strategies against HIV: an exploratory study in urban Lusaka

    Being young and female are two central aspects of vulnerability to HIV which intersect in the lives of adolescent girls. Both before and within marriage, girls and young women are especially vulnerable to contracting HIV as a result of both their biological susceptibility as well as their relative powerlessness within sexual relationships, the primary means of transmission. Girls and young women are disproportionally infected and affected by HIV and AIDS. …

  11. Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Women and Adolescent Girls living with HIV. Research Report on Qualitative Findings from Brazil, Ethiopia and the Ukraine

    Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Women and Adolescent Girls living with HIV. Research Report on Qualitative Findings from Brazil, Ethiopia and the Ukraine is a document developed by EngenderHealth with the support of UNFPA. This research identified some interesting trends across the three countries and some issues unique to each setting that need to be considered in strategic planning efforts to improve HIV-positive women's and adolescent girl's access and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services. …

  12. The short-term impacts of a schooling conditional cash transfer program on the sexual behaviour of young women

    Recent evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer programs for schooling are effective in raising school enrollment and attendance. However, there is also reason to believe that such programs can affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. Zomba Cash Transfer Program is a randomized, ongoing conditional cash transfer intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. …

  13. Epidemic of Inequality. Women's Rights and HIV/AIDS in Botswana and Swaziland. An Evidence-Based Report on the Effects of Gender Inequity, Stigma and Discrimination

    Deeply entrenched gender inequities perpetuate the AIDS pandemic in Botswana and Swaziland, the two countries with the highest HIV prevalence in the world. The legal systems in both countries grant women lesser status than men, restricting property, inheritance and other rights. Social, economic and cultural practices create, enforce and perpetuate legalized gender inequalities and discrimination in all aspects of women's lives. …

  14. The impact of HIV/AIDS on the schooling of female students in Addis Ababa

    In Ethiopia, in 2003, 2.9 million adults and 250 000 children are living with HIV/AIDS. About 90% of the reported AIDS cases are between the age 20 and 49 and this age group is among the productive sector. However, research has revealed (UNESCO Prospect Vol. XXXIII No. 2 June, 2002) that education about sex, AIDS and health in general particularly with children and young people, does not result in increased sexual activity but, on the contrary, leads to protective behaviour. The objectives of this study are as follows: 1. …

  15. HIV/AIDS and girls' education. The FAWE Kenya Experience

    This paper tells about an experience in Kenyan primary schools. A training workshop was organized for 64 teachers, two each from the 32 targeted primary schools. The two teachers subsequently served as patrons of the peer counselling clubs in their schools and provide guidance and counselling services. Through a highly participatory workshop, the teachers were equipped with knowledge, skills and attitudes in HIV/AIDS counselling and were presented with a lot of resource material for use in their schools. …

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