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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Situational analysis on the status of the sexual and reproductive health of students in tertiary institutions in the SADC region

    It is a hardy perennial of the university environment that normative consensus around large global issues such as sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) is easier to secure than the programmatic requisites. Thus, in principle, tertiary education students are included in international SRHR-related declarations and domestic policies pertaining to the education and health sectors; in practice, there is often a lack of programmatic and policy attention at institutional level, as well as a marked knowledge gap over the status of student’s sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs.

  2. How access to smartphones affects HIV risk among students in Tanzania: a case study of selected high schools in the Dar es Salaam region

    Studies show that smartphone adoption by teenagers in Tanzania has increased substantially, and mobile access to the Internet is pervasive. This study investigated whether the use of smartphones by high-school students in Tanzania raises their awareness of HIV or makes them more vulnerable to its acquisition. Twelve private and government high schools in Ilala and Kinondoni Municipalities, both day and boarding schools, participated in this study. Data collection entailed qualitative and quantitative methods. …

  3. Investigating risky sexual behaviours among youth in the context of the HIV epidemic in Mbeya region, Tanzania

    Mitigating HIV and AIDS among youth has been a major policy agenda both internationally and nationally, within Tanzania. Two concerns associated with mitigation efforts are increasing sexual activity at young ages and a burgeoning population of out-of-school youth whom poverty, lack of supervision, and unemployment seem to push into alternative life patterns that present risks to their health. This situation poses a serious challenge for Tanzania, where half the population is categorised as young.

  4. Experimental evaluation of school-based HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa

    School-based adolescent health education programs represent a durable strategy in reducing the spread of HIV because they can leverage pre-existing social and organizational structures to reach large fractions of students at critical life stages. Many evaluations of school-based HIV programs draw on multilevel study designs that assign schools to treatment conditions or assign students to treatment conditions within blocks defined by school membership. …

  5. Comprehensive sexuality education in teacher training in Eastern and Southern Africa

    This report is a consolidated summary and analysis of the status of comprehensive sexuality education for teacher training in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa region.

  6. Old enough to know: Consulting children about sex and AIDS education in Africa

    This compelling study, comprising of a sample of eight schools in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa -Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania - examines the sources, contents and processes of children´s community-based sexual knowledges and asks how these knowledges interact with AIDS education programmes in school. Old enough to know showcases the possibilities of consulting pupils using engaging, interactive and visual methods including digital still photography, mini-video documentaries, as well as interviews and observations. …

  7. Parent-child communication about sexual and reproductive health in rural Tanzania: Implications for young people's sexual health interventions

    Background: Many programmes on young people and HIV/AIDS prevention have focused on the in-school and channeled sexual and reproductive health messages through schools with limited activities for the young people's families. The assumption has been that parents in African families do not talk about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) with their children. These approach has had limited success because of failure to factor in the young person's family context, and the influence of parents. …

  8. An HIV/AIDS knowledge scale for adolescents: item response theory analyses based on data from a study in South Africa and Tanzania

    A 14-item human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge scale was used among school students in 80 schools in 3 sites in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). For each item, an incorrect or don't know response was coded as 0 and correct response as 1. Exploratory factor analyses based on polychoric correlations showed two separate factors for all sites. …

  9. Are there any disparities between girls and boys in the response of the education sector to HIV and AIDS? Assessment of educational HIV/AIDS prevention programmes applied by SACMEQ III countries

    This paper aims to assess whether the goals of the in-school programmes on prevention of HIV and AIDS that are taught in primary schools of 15 national ministries of education in Southern and Eastern Africa have been reached equitably between boys and girls by the end of primary education. One feature of most of these ministries is that they are in countries that are the hardest hit by a general HIV epidemic. More specifically, the paper aims to analyse schoolboys’ and schoolgirls’ general knowledge about HIV and AIDS. …

  10. Can we use young people’s knowledge to develop teachers and HIV-related education?

    Despite recent progress in meeting the goals of the Education for All agenda, certain groups of young people are particularly vulnerable to exclusion and underachievement, including children with HIV/AIDS, children living in poverty, and children with disabilities. HIV/AIDS has reduced many young people’s rights to access education, to live a full and healthy life, and to have a life as a child. …

  11. What Tanzanian young people want to know about sexual health; implications for school-based sex and relationships education

    It is very important that sex and relationships education (SRE) programme developers attempt to elicit, understand and incorporate young people's views in the SRE development and implementation processes. This paper reports the findings of a study that sought to identify young people's self-identified learning needs and priorities regarding sexual health that should be included in school-based SRE. Seven hundred and fifteen primary and secondary students aged between eight years and over 20 years old completed a survey between June and September 2007. …

  12. Teaching and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic: A School Case Study

    Background: This paper reports case study findings on how a school in Tanzania is attempting to integrate HIV/AIDS education. Methods: Interviews were held with the principal, 8 teachers, 8 pupils, the school nurse and 4 parents; observation of school environment and document analysis of posters, text books and school calendar was carried out to see evidence of HIV/AIDS activities in the school. Results: HIV/AIDS is integrated in the school curricula and some teachers have incorporated participatory pedagogy. However teachers lack support and teaching materials. …

  13. HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Background: Previous research has suggested that orphaned children and adolescents might have elevated risk for HIV infection. We examined the state of evidence regarding the association between orphan status and HIV risk in studies of youth aged 24 years and younger. Methods: Using systematic review methodology, we identified 10 studies reporting data from 12 countries comparing orphaned and non-orphaned youth on HIV-related risk indicators, including HIV serostatus, other sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy and sexual behaviours. …

  14. Out-of-school and at risk? Socio-demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge and risk perception among young people in Northern Tanzania

    This paper investigates the reasons why young people in urban and rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania do not attend school, their socio-demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge and risk perception. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted with 1007 young people between the ages of 13 and 18. Findings suggest that non-attendance is the product of a complex interaction of economic, individual, family and school-related factors. Boys have more AIDS knowledge than girls, and those from urban areas are more knowledgeable than their rural counterparts. …

  15. Multiple sexual partners and condom use among 10-19 year-olds in four districts in Tanzania: What do we learn?

    This study tested a hypothesis that sexual relationships with multiple partners in the 10- to 19-year age group spurs condom use during sex. The authors performed secondary analysis using data from the adolescent module of the cross-sectional household survey on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) that was done in Kigoma, Kilombero, Rufiji and Ulanga districts, Tanzania in 2008. A total of 612 adolescents from a random sample of 1,200 households participated in this study. Pearson Chi-Square was used as a test of association between multiple sexual partners and condom use. …

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