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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Zimbabwean secondary school guidance and counseling teachers teaching sexuality education in the HIV and AIDS education curriculum

    In spite of the importance of sexuality education and HIV and AIDS education in preventing HIV infections, Zimbabwean secondary school Guidance and Counseling teachers are not engaging optimally with the current Guidance and Counseling, HIV and AIDS & Life Skills education curriculum, and hence, they are not serving the needs of the learners in the context of the HIV and AIDS pandemic. …

  2. Experimental evaluation of school-based HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa

    School-based adolescent health education programs represent a durable strategy in reducing the spread of HIV because they can leverage pre-existing social and organizational structures to reach large fractions of students at critical life stages. Many evaluations of school-based HIV programs draw on multilevel study designs that assign schools to treatment conditions or assign students to treatment conditions within blocks defined by school membership. …

  3. The role of partners’ educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries

    Introduction: Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 1534) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. …

  4. Perception of risk of HIV infections and sexual behaviour of the sexually active university students in Zimbabwe

    The study sought to establish university students’ perceptions of risk of HIV infections. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 345 sexually active students at two universities in Zimbabwe (one state and one private). Results revealed that above a quarter of the respondents felt at risk of getting HIV due to their regular partners’ sexual behaviours and more than half felt at risk of getting HIV due to their casual partners’ sexual behaviours. In addition, a third of the respondents acknowledged the HIV risk due to their own sexual behaviours. …

  5. Preventing sexual violence and HIV in children

    BACKGROUND: Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. …

  6. An examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV/AIDS prevention in Zimbabwean university students: Comparing intervention program participants and non-participants

    OBJECTIVES: This study represents a comprehensive assessment of differences between participants in an HIV/AIDS prevention program (SHAPE: Sustainability, Hope, Action, Prevention, Education) and non-participants in knowledge, attitudes and practices with a focus on cultural, sociological and economic variables. METHODS: We developed an eight-page questionnaire that was administered to 933 randomly selected students at the University of Zimbabwe. Survey items addressed sexual decision-making, condom use, limiting sexual partners, cultural power dynamics and access to HIV testing. …

  7. Factors shaping the HIV-competence of two primary schools in rural Zimbabwe

    We present multi-method case studies of two Zimbabwean primary schools – one rural and one small-town. The rural school scored higher than the small-town school on measures of child well-being and school attendance by HIV-affected children. The small-town school had superior facilities, more teachers with higher morale, more specialist HIV/AIDS activities, and an explicit religious ethos. The relatively impoverished rural school was located in a more cohesive community with a more critically conscious, dynamic and networking headmaster. …

  8. Emma says: A case study of the use of comics for health education among women in the AIDS heartland

    The purpose of this paper is to examine one mass media AIDS education project, the Emma Says comic series. Created by an international health research organization based in the USA, the series was designed to educate women in rural Africa about the need to protect themselves from AIDS. The Emma Says series aimed to deliver powerful messages about AIDS in an easy-to-understand format using the caricature of an African woman working as a health educator in her community. …

  9. A surprising prevention success: Why did the HIV epidemic decline in Zimbabwe?

    There is growing recognition that primary prevention, including behavior change, must be central in the fight against HIV/AIDS. The earlier successes in Thailand and Uganda may not be fully relevant to the severely affected countries of southern Africa. We conducted an extensive multi-disciplinary synthesis of the available data on the causes of the remarkable HIV decline that has occurred in Zimbabwe (29% estimated adult prevalence in 1997 to 16% in 2007), in the context of severe social, political, and economic disruption. …

  10. The Impact of the HIV/AIDS and Economic Crises on Orphans and Other Vulnerable children in Zimbabwe

    Zimbabwe, like most of Sub-Saharian Africa, has been hard-hit by HIV/AIDS. National estimates reported by the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare put the prevalence rates of HIV in the age group between 15 and 49 at 15.3% (WHO, UNICEF, & UNAIDS, 2008). This is one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in the world (UNAIDS, 2008). The impact of the pandemic has been so severe that current mitigation efforts fall short of alleviating the situation, especially as it pertains to the plight of children. …

  11. HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Background: Previous research has suggested that orphaned children and adolescents might have elevated risk for HIV infection. We examined the state of evidence regarding the association between orphan status and HIV risk in studies of youth aged 24 years and younger. Methods: Using systematic review methodology, we identified 10 studies reporting data from 12 countries comparing orphaned and non-orphaned youth on HIV-related risk indicators, including HIV serostatus, other sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy and sexual behaviours. …

  12. Concurrent partnerships, acute infection and HIV epidemic dynamics among young adults in Zimbabwe

    This paper explores the roles of acute infection and concurrent partnerships in HIV transmission dynamics among young adults in Zimbabwe using realistic representations of the partnership network and all published estimates of stage-specific infectivity. We use dynamic exponential random graph models to estimate partnership network parameters from an empirical study of sexual behavior and drive a stochastic simulation of HIV transmission through this dynamic network. …

  13. An impact evaluation of student teacher training in HIV/AIDS education in Zimbabwe

    Zimbabwe introduced a nation-wide program to teach AIDS education in 1994. This paper evaluates changes in student teachers' level of knowledge about transmission, symptoms and prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS; their attitude towards persons living with AIDS; and their sensitivity to the impact of the epidemic and to discussing and teaching about these issues. There was an increase in knowledge of HIV prevention and in teachers' ability to discuss reproductive health and sexual issues. …

  14. Targeting HIV interventions for adolescent girls and young women in Southern Africa: use of the PLACE methodology in Hwange district, Zimbabwe

    This paper addresses the issue of how to target interventions to girls 15+19 and young women 20-24 in a resource poor setting of Hwange District, Zimbabwe. The Priorities for Local AIDS Control efforts methodology was used to understand where these young people socialize and also to understand whether age disparate relationships were a common occurrence. Findings indicated prevention efforts for those 15-19 would need to focus on 'everyday' sites as these are the places where the majority of girls socialized. …

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