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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. We've got the power: women, adolescent girls and the HIV response

    This publication marks the 25th anniversary of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, the most comprehensive and progressive global policy road map for fulfilling the human rights of women and girls and achieving gender equality. Progress has been made in key areas, the report shows, however, that many of the promises made to improve the lives of women and girls around the world have not been kept. It points out how the HIV epidemic holds a mirror up to these inequalities and injustices, and how the gaps in rights and services for women and girls are exacerbating the epidemic. …

  2. Gender tales from Africa: voices of children and women against discrimination

    The collection of these tales aims to provide relevant and experiential case studies for participants in gender-related courses in schools, colleges and universities, as well as in non-formal education settings. Most of the tales were written and tested by facilitators and learners during the annual 'Gender and Development in Southern Africa' course between 1998 and 2000. Several were also tested in a UNICEF workshop on 'Gender, Sexuality and HIV/ AIDS in Education', which was held in Malawi in July 2001. …

  3. Cross-generational and transactional sexual relations in Uganda: Income poverty as a risk factor for adolescents

    The phenomenon of cross-generational sex – defined as sexual relationships between an adolescent girl and a partner who is older, usually by 10 or more years – can be linked to many life-long consequences. …

  4. Discussion paper: Cash transfers and HIV prevention

    This discussion paper synthesizes the evidence for the effectiveness of cash transfers for HIV prevention and explores implications and opportunities for advancing research and policy agendas. Much of this evidence centres on girls and young women, who bear significant HIV burdens, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, and often have less control over their sexual choices than do men. Many forms of transfers exist that may contribute to HIV prevention. …

  5. The cost and cost-effectiveness of gender-responsive interventions for HIV: a systematic review

    Introduction: Harmful gender norms and inequalities, including gender-based violence, are important structural barriers to effective HIV programming. We assess current evidence on what forms of gender-responsive intervention may enhance the effectiveness of basic HIV programmes and be cost-effective. Methods: Effective intervention models were identified from an existing evidence review (“what works for women”). Based on this, we conducted a systematic review of published and grey literature on the costs and cost-effectiveness of each intervention identified. …

  6. Strengthening the enabling environment for women and girls: what is the evidence in social and structural approaches in the HIV response?

    There is growing interest in expanding public health approaches that address social and structural drivers that affect the environment in which behaviour occurs. Half of those living with HIV infection are women. The sociocultural and political environment in which women live can enable or inhibit their ability to protect themselves from acquiring HIV. …

  7. Preventing sexual violence and HIV in children

    BACKGROUND: Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. …

  8. Know Your HIV/AIDS epidemic from a gender perspective: Rwanda Report

    Decades of research from around the world has demonstrated that gender inequality negatively affects a range of health outcomes for adults, and gender inequality has been recognized as a key driver of the worldwide HIV epidemic. Managers at the national and subnational levels need information on the intersection of gender and HIV to address gender in the planning and implementing of HIV programs. Policy makers need information on interventions that are effective in accounting for gender inequities for decision making on national and global levels. …

  9. Gender inequality and HIV transmission: a global analysis

    Introduction: The HIV pandemic disproportionately impacts young women. Worldwide, young women aged 15–24 are infected with HIV at rates twice that of young men, and young women alone account for nearly a quarter of all new HIV infections. The incommensurate HIV incidence in young – often poor – women underscores how social and economic inequalities shape the HIV epidemic. Confluent social forces, including political and gender violence, poverty, racism, and sexism impede equal access to therapies and effective care, but most of all constrain the agency of women. …

  10. Learning about HIV/AIDS in schools: does a gender-equality approach make a difference?

    Is HIV education based on the principles of gender equality possible in practice? If so, can it make a difference to gender relations in a society? This chapter considers these questions through reflection on two gender-based HIV education interventions in South Africa and Mozambique, which took place between 2001 and 2003.

  11. Gender Dynamics and Sexual Norms among Youth in Mali in the Context of HIV/AIDS Prevention

    Socially constructed ideas of gender norms and values attached to sexuality need to be considered when aiming to build the young people’s capacity to adopt HIV preventive behaviours. We conducted ten focus groups and sixteen individual interviews to explore sexual norms among youth in Bamako. Premarital sex, multiple partnering, condom use and transactional sex were discussed. The findings suggest that young people’s sexual norms are shaped by kin or authoritative elders as well as by external influences coming from Western culture. …

  12. If I buy the Kellogg’s then he should [buy] the milk: young women’s perspectives on relationship dynamics, gender power and HIV risk in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women's decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. The authors conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24-year-old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women's expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power and how this influences HIV risk. …

  13. Women hold up half the sky - and half the burden of the HIV epidemic

    The HIV burden on women is dramatically higher in some regions, certain age groups and among marginalized groups, such as female sex workers. Women’s vulnerability to HIV is exacerbated by gender inequality and domestic violence. The global effort towards elimination of paediatric HIV and keeping mothers alive deserves applause. However, the needs of women go beyond their child-bearing age or potentials and/or reproductive desires and must be recognized in the global HIV agenda. In particular, more female-controlled prevention tools are urgently required to allow women to protect themselves.

  14. Are there any disparities between girls and boys in the response of the education sector to HIV and AIDS? Assessment of educational HIV/AIDS prevention programmes applied by SACMEQ III countries

    This paper aims to assess whether the goals of the in-school programmes on prevention of HIV and AIDS that are taught in primary schools of 15 national ministries of education in Southern and Eastern Africa have been reached equitably between boys and girls by the end of primary education. One feature of most of these ministries is that they are in countries that are the hardest hit by a general HIV epidemic. More specifically, the paper aims to analyse schoolboys’ and schoolgirls’ general knowledge about HIV and AIDS. …

  15. Education sector response to HIV and AIDS: assessment on responses of higher education institutions to HIV/AIDS and gender in Ethiopia

    This assessment is based on an institution-based cross-sectional survey conducted with the main objective of assessing the current status of HIV/AIDS and gender responses of higher education institutions in Ethiopia. Eighteen public and four private HEIs located in nine regions of the country were covered by the study. The study was conducted between October and November 2011. The HEIs covered by this assessment have organized their HIV/AIDS program at different levels. …

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