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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. HIV/AIDS national strategic plans of Sub-Saharan African countries: an analysis for gender equality and sex-disaggregated HIV targets

    National Strategic Plans (NSPs) for HIV/AIDS are country planning documents that set priorities for programmes and services, including a set of targets to quantify progress toward national and international goals. The inclusion of sex- disaggregated targets and targets to combat gender inequality is important given the high disease burden among young women and adolescent girls in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet no comprehensive gender-focused analysis of NSP targets has been performed. …

  2. AIDS at 35: a midlife crisis

    AIDS was first publicly reported on 5 June 1981 in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) of the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Doctors in New York and San Francisco were seeing clusters of previously extremely rare diseases such as Pneumocystis carinii, and Kaposi’s sarcoma. These infections manifested in exceptionally serious forms, initially, within a narrowly defined risk group — young, homosexual men, and led to death within a short period. …

  3. Structural drivers and social protection: mechanisms of HIV risk and HIV prevention for South African adolescents

    Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can “cash plus care” social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV risks and then examining potential main and moderating effects of social protection in South Africa.

  4. State variation in HIV/AIDS health outcomes: the effect of spending on social services and public health

    Objective: Despite considerable advances in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, the burden of new infections of HIV and AIDS varies substantially across the country. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between increased healthcare spending and better HIV/AIDS outcomes; however, less is known about the association between spending on social services and public health spending and HIV/AIDS outcomes. …

  5. Zimbabwe's national AIDS levy: a case study

    Background: The authors conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund (‘AIDS Levy’) as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Methods: Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the Zimbabwe National AIDS Council (NAC), and key informant interviews with representatives of the Zimbabwean government, civil society and international organizations. Findings: The literature search yielded 139 sources, and 20 key informants were interviewed. …

  6. Let's talk about HIV, if not now then when?

    This journal provides an overview of the government's and partners' AIDS response in Lebanon.

  7. Assessment of the psychometric properties of HIV knowledge items across five countries

    HIV knowledge is commonly measured in HIV prevention research and program evaluations, but rigorous measurement standards are not always applied. Using item response theory methods, we examined the psychometric functioning of five commonly used HIV knowledge questions in five countries with varying HIV prevalence. We evaluated the internal consistency and measurement invariance of the items. The items performed poorly in all samples and the scale as a whole did not perform equally across samples. …

  8. The impact and cost of the HIV/AIDS investment framework for adolescents

    Background: In 2005, the resources needed to support orphans and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa were estimated at US$1.1–4.1 billion. Approaches to support vulnerable children have changed considerably since then. This study updates previous estimates by including new types of support and information on support costs. Methods: We considered 16 types of support categorized as economic strengthening, education support, social care and community outreach, and program support. …

  9. Mobilisation, politics, investment and constant adaptation: lessons from the Australian health-promotion response to HIV

    ISSUE ADDRESSED: The Australian response to HIV oversaw one of the most rapid and sustained changes in community behaviour in Australia's health-promotion history. The combined action of communities of gay men, sex workers, people who inject drugs, people living with HIV and clinicians working in partnership with government, public health and research has been recognised for many years as highly successful in minimising the HIV epidemic. …

  10. AIDS in the family and community: The impact on child health in Malawi

    Pediatric HIV infections jeopardize children’s health and survival. Much less is known about how the experiences of being orphaned, living with chronically ill parents, or living in a severely affected community impact child health. Our study responds by examining which HIV/AIDS-related experiences place children at greatest risk for poor health. …

  11. AIDS policy in Lesotho: Implementation challenges

    HIV/AIDS, dubbed by some analysts as "a looming threat to security in Southern Africa" has been spreading at phenomenal rates in Lesotho since the first AIDS case was reported in 1986; twelve years later (1998) the number of infected adults stood at 101,000. At the end of 2001 this figure had risen by over 78% to 180,000, while children orphaned by the death of their AIDS-infected parents numbered 73,000. For an underdeveloped country with a population of just over two million, these statistics are a cause for alarm. …

  12. Can money prevent the spread of HIV? A review of cash payments for HIV prevention

    Cash payments to improve health outcomes have been used for many years; however, their use for HIV prevention is new and the impact not yet well understood. We provide a brief background on the rationale behind using cash to improve health outcomes, review current studies completed or underway using cash for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, and outline some key considerations on the use of cash payments to prevent HIV infections. We searched the literature for studies that implemented cash transfer programs and measured HIV or HIV-related outcomes. …

  13. Never tested for HIV in Latin-American migrants and Spaniards: prevalence and percieved barriers

    Increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the number of undiagnosed people is a priority for HIV prevention. Understanding the barriers that hinder people from testing is vital, particularly when working with especially vulnerable populations like migrants. Barriers to HIV testing in Latin-American migrants living in Europe remain unexplored. Still, they account for a quarter of new diagnosis in Spain and suffer higher rates of delayed diagnosis. Between May 2008 and March 2011, a mobile unit offered free rapid HIV tests in different Spanish cities. …

  14. Condoms in sub-Saharan Africa

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region with the world’s highest rates of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs), yet numerous studies show that condom use is generally rare. This suggests a need for a better understanding of how condoms fit within sexual practices and relationships in SSA. This paper seeks to address this need by reviewing research published between the late 1980s and 2011 on use and factors influencing use of male condoms in SSA. …

  15. HIV/AIDS program in Jharkhand: a critical review

    This article is an attempt to present and elaborate the HIV/AIDS scenario in Jharkhand state of India, services available, key issues, challenges, and concerns at various levels to mitigate the epidemic. It also examines the role of different stakeholders and agencies in halting and reversing the epidemic. The findings show that there are various challenges that need immediate attention. The article critically examines these issues in detail and suggests the approach to address the epidemic.

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