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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. State variation in HIV/AIDS health outcomes: the effect of spending on social services and public health

    Objective: Despite considerable advances in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, the burden of new infections of HIV and AIDS varies substantially across the country. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between increased healthcare spending and better HIV/AIDS outcomes; however, less is known about the association between spending on social services and public health spending and HIV/AIDS outcomes. …

  2. Improving sexuality education: The development of teacher-preparation standards

    BACKGROUND: Teaching sexuality education to support young people’s sexual development and overall sexual health is both needed and supported. Data continue to highlight the high rates of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, among young people in the United States as well as the overwhelming public support for sexuality education instruction. In support of the implementation of the National Sexuality Education Standards, the current effort focuses on better preparing teachers to deliver sexuality education. …

  3. Health + Equality + School Engagement: Scenarios USA reinvents sex education

    This issue of Quality/Calidad/Qualité highlights the experience of Scenarios USA, an innovative nonprofit program that has integrated a gender and rights perspective—and a critical thinking approach—into curricula, while fostering new pedagogies and greater awareness among teachers. Scenarios USA approaches sexual health not as a standalone issue but as intertwined with young people’s overall lives and agency. …

  4. Making HIV prevention programming count: identifying predictors of success in a parent-based HIV prevention program for youth

    Predictors of change in the number of sexual topics parents discussed and responsiveness during sex communication with their preadolescent after participating in a five-session sexual risk reduction intervention for parents were examined. Data were from 339 African American parents of preadolescents enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized-controlled trial of the Parents’ Matter! Program (PMP). …

  5. Support for comprehensive sexuality education: perspectives from parents of school-age youth

    Controversy about school-based sexuality education in public schools has continued over the past decade, despite mounting evidence that comprehensive sexuality education effectively promotes sexual health and that parents support these programs in public schools. The present study replicates and expands upon previous findings regarding public views on school-based sexuality education. …

  6. A tale of two countries: rethinking sexual risk for HIV among young people in South Africa and the United States

    This paper compares the sexual behaviors of young people in South Africa (SA) and the United States (US) with the aim of better understanding the potential role of sexual behavior in HIV transmission in these two countries that have strikingly different HIV epidemics. Nationally representative, population-based surveys of young people ages 18-24 years from SA (n = 7,548) and the US (n = 13,451) were used. The prevalence of HIV was 10.2% in SA and 1% in the US. …

  7. Behavioral Outcomes of AIDS Educational Interventions for Drug Users in Short-Term Treatment

    This study compares the behavioral impact of informational vs enhanced small-group educational interventions among 407 drug users in a 21-day detoxification and rehabilitation program in Massachusetts, U.S.A. Sexual and drug-related behavior were analyzed using logistic regression at a follow-up visit after the program. Among users at lower risk, the enhanced approach was more effective at reducing injection-related risks associated with HIV transmission. Among users at higher risk, the informational approach was more effective. …

  8. School-Based Sexuality Education: The Issues and Challenges

    This article discusses the controversy and challenges that surrounded providing sex education in the U.S., including the Franklin Country (North Carolina) school board ordering the removal of textbook chapters dealing with sexual behavior, contraception, HIV/AIDs, and STIs from 9th graders health textbooks, and the state requirement to promote abstinence until marriage. It discusses the abstinence only movement and reviews efforts to undermine sexuality education dating back to the 1960s, while also providing the teachers' perspectives and difficulties faced. …

  9. Changing emphases in sexuality education in U.S. public secondary schools, 1988-1999

    This study analyzed data from a nationally representative survey of 3,754 7th-12th grade teachers of the subjects most often responsible for sexuality education. These results are compared to the subset of 1,767 teachers who actually taught sexuality education and another comparable survey from 1988. By 1999, 93% of respondents indicated that sexuality education was being taught in ther schools. This education covered STIs, abstinence, birth control, abortion and sexual orientation. …

  10. Sexuality Education in Fifth and Sixth Grades in U.S. Public Schools, 1999

    This study was conducted in 1999 using data from a nationally representative survey of 5th and 6th grader teachers (n=1789) in 5,543 public schools. Analyses were conducted of topics and skills taught relating to sexuality education, grades to which they were taught, teaching approaches, pressures experienced, support received and their needs. Seventy-two percent of the teachers reported that sexuality education is taught in their schools in at least one grade. …

  11. A Tri-Level HIV-Prevention Educational Intervention

    This paper describes an intervention designed to provide HIV education at three levels: to students in a registered nurse baccalaureate-nursing program, lay health advisors, and African Americans in high risk communities. Students conducted needs assessments and prepared teaching plans, contributed to funding proposals and implemented and evaluated their programs. Lay health workers were trained as peer educators and were drawn from the high risk community, to increase their credibility. Of the 168 community participants, 151 completed both pre and post-test HIV knowledge exams. …

  12. HIV Prevention Education and HIV-Related Policies in Secondary Schools -- Selected Sites, United States, 2006

    People engaging in risky behavior are at risk for contracting HIV infection. Health education programs in schools can reduce the prevalence of such behaviors among students. School policies on HIV can also protect the rights of HIV-infected students and staff and reduce the odds of transmission to others. This report analyzed School Health Profiles from 2006 across 36 states and 13 urban school districts in the U.S. …

  13. Comparison of Health Education and STD Risk Reduction Interventions for Incarcerated Adolescent Females

    Adolescent girls imprisoned in state reformatories were recruited (N=246) to an 18-month health education or HIV prevention program. A randomized block design was used to assign girls to one of the two programs. Girls in the HIV prevention program had improved risk reduction and condom use skills. At 9 months of follow-up, girls in both groups reported less sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs and less unprotected sex.

  14. Shaping AIDS Education and Prevention Programs for African Americans Amidst Community Decline

    AIDS education must be tailored to the target community's needs. A three-pronged approach is needed to mitigate the AIDS epidemic within the African American community. Firstly, the notion that AIDS and the drug abuse epidemics are a conspiracy must be dispelled and converted into a movement to save African Americans. Secondly, African American men and women, separately then together, must take responsibility for the gender role changes that have encouraged HIV and STI infections. …

  15. The Association of AIDS Education and Sex Education with Sexual Behavior and Condom Use Among Teenage Men

    A 1998 national U.S. survey of 15-19 year olds found that 73% had received education about AIDS, 79% about birth control and 58% about resisting sexual activity. Multivariate analysis shows that AIDS and sex education moderately but significantly decreased number of sexual partners and frequency of intercourse in the year prior to the survey. This type of education was also associated with more consistent condom use. Education on some topics was associated with increased knowledge and improved attitudes about AIDS, but these did not always correlate with safer sexual behavior.

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