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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Mapping the knowledge and understanding of menarche, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries

    This paper maps the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices surrounding menarche, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health among adolescent girls in low and middle income countries in order to inform the future design of relevant policies and programming. The study of over 80 journal articles from a number of low and middle income countries confirmed that: (1) Many adolescent girls start their periods uninformed and unprepared. (2) Mothers are the primary source of information, but they inform girls too-little and too-late and often communicate their own misconceptions. …

  2. Promoting Health-Seeking Behaviours and Quality of Care among Men who have Sex with Men and Transgender Women: Evidence from 5 Provinces in Thailand

    The study was commissioned by UNESCO Bangkok and aims to increase understanding about the health-seeking behavior of MSM/TG women in Thailand, including perceptions of illness, sources of information on sexual health, types of health services accessed, and constraints and obstacles in accessing healthcare; and to evaluate whether existing sexual health services meet the needs of MSM and TG women in the current Thai context, and develop recommendations for community groups/organizations, policy-makers (in light of Thailand’s revised National AIDS strategy), health service providers and developi …

  3. Self-reported sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Uganda: reliability of data debated

    The objective of this study was to compare self-reported information about sexual behavior in a research interview to information retrieved during a clinical consultation. Social workers interviewed 595 sexually experienced women below 20 years about genital symptoms and sexual behavior. A midwife interviewed and examined the women and took vaginal samples for gonorrhea and chlamydia. Four questions were embedded in both the social workers' interviews and among the midwife's questions. …

  4. Assessing knowledge, attitude, and practice of emergency contraception: a cross-sectional study among Ethiopian undergraduate female students

    The importance of Emergency contraception (EC) is evident in preventing unintended pregnancies and its ill consequences like unintended child delivery or unsafe abortion, which are the most common causes of maternal mortality. Knowing that Ethiopia is one of the countries with highest maternal mortality rate, this study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC, and to further elucidate the relationship between these factors and some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among female undergraduate students of Addis Ababa University. …

  5. Knowledge and attitudes toward AIDS among female college students in Nagasaki, Japan

    This study assesses knowledge and attitudes concerning HIV infection and individuals with AIDS among 383 female students attending colleges in Nagasaki, Japan. A structured questionnaire containing questions concerning knowledge about AIDS, sources of information, beliefs and attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS was administered during sessions set up for that purpose. The mean age of participants was 18.8 ± 0.8 years (± SD). The main source of information for AIDS awareness as reported by the students was the mass media. …

  6. Understanding Women's HIV Risk Perception in Postsocialist Georgia: Role of Knowledge, Behavioral, and Contextual Factors

    This dissertation explores the influences of HIV knowledge, health behaviors, and context-specific socioeconomic and sociocultural factors on HIV perceived risk among women in the Republic of Georgia. For effective HIV/AIDS prevention, individuals who perceive themselves at some risk of contracting HIV are more likely to reduce risk behaviors. Theories of health behavior incorporate perceived risk as an important component of HIV prevention, but they fail to incorporate factors influencing that risk perception. …

  7. Prevenção e Tratamento dos Agravos Resultantes da violência Sexual Contra Mulheres e Adolescentes: Norma Técnica

    O Estado brasileiro, por intermédio do Ministério da Saúde, assumiu o compromisso com os direitos humanos das mulheres e com a garantia do exercício pleno de sua saúde física e mental, por meio da formulação de políticas públicas de saúde que respondam a suas reais necessidades. A atenção à violência sexual e doméstica é objetivo específico da Política Nacional de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher, na qual estão previstas ações de ampliação e acessibilidade das mulheres e adolescentes aos serviços de saúde. …

  8. Sexual risk among orphaned adolescents: is country-level HIV prevalence an important factor?

    Previous studies from sub-Saharan Africa have found that orphans experience increased sexual risk compared to non-orphans. This article developed a theoretical framework for the investigation of determinants of HIV risk and used it to generate specific hypotheses regarding the effect of country-level HIV prevalence on the sexual risk experience of orphans. It expected that countries with high HIV prevalence would experience a higher prevalence of orphanhood. …

  9. Understanding adolescent girls' protection strategies against HIV: an exploratory study in urban Lusaka

    Being young and female are two central aspects of vulnerability to HIV which intersect in the lives of adolescent girls. Both before and within marriage, girls and young women are especially vulnerable to contracting HIV as a result of both their biological susceptibility as well as their relative powerlessness within sexual relationships, the primary means of transmission. Girls and young women are disproportionally infected and affected by HIV and AIDS. …

  10. Gender relations and sexual communication among female students in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam

    Young women's ability to pursue a safer-sex life in line with their wishes is crucial to their sexual health. Although some previous observations have suggested that young women's lack of ability to negotiate safer sex is due to gender power imbalances in the culture of Vietnam, studies that have tested this hypothesis explicitly and quantitatively are few and far between. The present study aimed to test the association between perceived gender relations and perceived self-efficacy in communicating sexual matters among undergraduate female students in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam. …

  11. Plano Integrado de Enfrentamento da Feminização da Epidemia de Aids e outras DST

    Plano Integrado de Enfrentamento da Feminização da Epidemia de Aids e outras DST e um documento elaborado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil em 2007. Resultado de uma parceria que procurou reunir esforços e alçar voo a partir da articulação intersetorial e da participação de parceiras/os da sociedade civil, o Plano tem como elemento fundamental o enfrentamento das múltiplas vulnerabilidades que contribuem para que as mulheres brasileiras estejam mais suscetíveis à infecção pelo HIV e a outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. …

  12. Sakhi Saheli. Promoting Gender Equity and Empowering Young Women. A Training Manual

    Sakhi Saheli: Promoting Gender Equity and Empowering Young Women - a Training Manual has been developed by CORO for Literacy and Horizons/Population Council with support from Instituto Promundo. The Manual is an important resource for those who work with young females to prevent HIV infection and sexual and reproductive health problems. …

  13. Learning About Healthy Living - An Activity Manual for Outreach Workers

    Learning About Healthy Living - An Activity Manual for Outreach Workers is a document developed by Family Health International in Lao PDR and funded by USAID in 2007. The manual illustrates the experiences of outreach workers in Lao PDR. It provides clear guidance for conducting prevention education activities with women (sex workers). It also shows how complex Reproductive Health and HIV prevention information can be successfully presented by outreach volunteers who, in many cases, develop their own materials. …

  14. Project GLOW, Health and Life Planning Skills Curriculum

    Project GLOW, Health and Life Planning Skills Curriculum is a curriculum document developed in 2008 by PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health), Mercy Corps and the Liangshan Yi For Empowerment (LYFE) Center on Project GLOW (Giving Leadership Opportunities to Young Women) with support from the Nike Foundation. The document is prepared for facilitators so they can equip and empower Yi adolescent girls with the life skills, health, and economic options necessary to cope and move beyond the challenges of urban migration and the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. …

  15. The Questions Adolescents Ask Most Frequently About Pregnancy and Their Answers. Vol 4

    The GTZ supported Reproductive Health Project of Tanzania developed youth-friendly education materials, with basic facts about human physiology and reproduction, sexuality, prevention of unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STIs, as well as about partnership and communication between partners. Based on the most frequently asked questions adolescents had on a range of sexual and reproductive health issues, a multidisciplinary team of specialists together with young people de-veloped six "question-and-answer" booklets. …

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