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This document represents a synthesis of country studies on the cultural approach to HIV/AIDS prevention and care initiated in the context of a UNESCO/UNAIDS research project. The studies aim to identify the interaction between culture, development and the HIV/AIDS problem, in order to adopt the appropriate preventive actions and care. More than a simple synthesis, the document identifies general trends within the different cultures with regard to risk perception, the complexity of AIDS, its socio-cultural and multidimensional impact. The document explores also the cultural diversity and identifies vulnerable groups within a society and culture. Lessons learned and recommendations have been formulated based on the data collected.