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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Education Sector HIV and AIDS Global Progress Survey: Kenya Summary Report

    Kenya Country Report for the 2011-2012 Education Sector HIV and AIDS Global Progress Survey.

  2. A critical review of the evidence on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS education programs for youth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    This paper critically examines the evidence from recent experimental design evaluations on the impact of HIV/AIDS prevention through youth education programs in sub-Saharan Africa. It pre-specifies the study inclusion criteria, the search strategy and the methods for summarizing findings. This paper also identifies recurring flaws in the research and suggests several methods for avoiding these shortcomings in future studies. Our initial search produced 139 potential articles for review, but only six met the pre-stated study inclusion criteria. …

  3. A surprising prevention success: Why did the HIV epidemic decline in Zimbabwe?

    There is growing recognition that primary prevention, including behavior change, must be central in the fight against HIV/AIDS. The earlier successes in Thailand and Uganda may not be fully relevant to the severely affected countries of southern Africa. We conducted an extensive multi-disciplinary synthesis of the available data on the causes of the remarkable HIV decline that has occurred in Zimbabwe (29% estimated adult prevalence in 1997 to 16% in 2007), in the context of severe social, political, and economic disruption. …

  4. Long-Term Biological and Behavioural Impact of an Adolescent Sexual Health Intervention in Tanzania: Follow-up Survey of the Community-Based MEMA kwa Vijana Trial

    The ability of specific behaviour-change interventions to reduce HIV infection in young people remains questionable. Since January 1999, an adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) intervention has been implemented in ten randomly chosen intervention communities in rural Tanzania, within a community randomised trial (see below; NCT00248469). The intervention consisted of teacher-led, peer-assisted in-school education, youth-friendly health services, community activities, and youth condom promotion and distribution. …

  5. Evidence, politics and Uganda's HIV success: moving forward with ABC and HIV prevention

    Uganda’s HIV success story has become increasingly focused around the idea of ‘ABC’ (Abstain, Be faithful or use Condoms). During the George W. Bush administration, the US Government has promoted one specific ABC model for its development agencies, with a particular emphasis on abstinence. Yet other actors have contested this view. To understand Uganda’s success, it is imperative to look at what ABC was in Uganda when critical changes in behaviour were occurring. …

  6. Antiretroviral drug access and behavior change

    Access to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in Sub-Saharan Africa has rapidly expanded - from fewer than 10,000 people treated in 2000 to more than 8 million in 2011. To measure the impact of this expansion, it is necessary to identify the behavioral response of individuals to drug access. This paper combines geocoded information about the timing of introduction of ARVs in all Kenyan health facilities with two waves of geocoded population surveys to estimate the impact of proximity to an ARV provider on risky sexual behavior. …

  7. Theatre for a Change teacher training college programme, Malawi. Baseline report 2010-2011

    Theatre for a Change (TfaC) is a registered non-governmental organization in Malawi that works to reduce the risk of HIV infection among marginalized and vulnerable groups through the use of interactive, participatory learning techniques. In Malawi, the HIV prevalence rate of teachers is 23%; almost double the national rate of 12% (National AIDS Commission 2009). TfaC’s Teacher Training College (TTC) programme is a behaviour change intervention that works with trainee teachers in Teacher Training Colleges nationwide to reduce the high risk of HIV infection among teachers in Malawi.

  8. Nothing as practical as good theory? The theoretical basis of HIV prevention interventions for young people in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review

    This paper assesses the extent to which HIV prevention interventions for young people in sub-Saharan Africa are grounded in theory and if theory-based interventions are more effective. Three databases were searched for evaluation studies of HIV prevention interventions for youth. Additional articles were identified on websites of international organisations and through searching references. 34 interventions were included; 25 mentioned the use of theory. …

  9. HIV sero-behavioural study in six universities in Uganda

    There is inadequate information on the burden of HIV infection, and on the prevalence of the risk factors for HIV transmission among University students in Uganda. Routine sources of data such as HIV surveillance and national population-based AIDS Indicator surveys do not provide information on institutional populations such as University students. Moreover, these sub-populations require interventions to address the risk factors that expose them to HIV infection in their unique settings. …

  10. HIV sero-behavioural study in six universities in Kenya

    Universities and institutions of higher learning in general consist mainly of young people in the 17-24 year old category, most of whom are sexually active, and therefore most vulnerable to HIV infection. And though studies such as KAIS (2007) and KDHS (2003, 2008) have been conducted on the general Kenyan population, studies specific to institutions of higher learning are scanty, in particular, sero-prevalence data on this target group is lacking. …

  11. Young people's perspectives on the adoption of preventive measures for HIV/AIDS, malaria and family planning in South-West Uganda: focus group study

    The aim of the study was to explore young people's understanding and knowledge about why protective measures against HIV/AIDS, malaria and unplanned pregnancy are not taken by those at risk in Uganda. The study results were that the participants (all from secondary school in Kanungu Uganda) could identify reasons why preventive action was not taken. These reasons included misconceptions, the inpracticability of abstinence, and fear of side effects of several key interventions. The article argues that there is an apportunity to improve preventive measures by tackling these issues. …

  12. Positive Action for HIV in Schools in Kenya

    Although many sub-Saharan African countries that are affected by HIV and AIDS have developed education sector policies in response to the epidemic, there are still challenges in effectively addressing the issue in schools. These challenges include lack of appropriate leadership and coordination at the school level, limited training and skills update on HIV and AIDS among school-based caregivers (teachers, school nurses and matrons), absence of appropriate guidelines in some settings, and lack of coordination between the education, health and other sectors. …

  13. Fear appeals in HIV-prevention messages: young people's perceptions in northern Tanzania

    The aims of the study were to elicit the perceptions of young people in Tanzania on the role of fear appeals in HIV-prevention messages and to identify important contextual factors that may influence young people's perceptions of HIV-prevention posters. A total of 10 focus groups were conducted to investigate the role of fear appeals using the extended parallel process model (EPPM) as a guide. …

  14. University students and HIV in Namibia: an HIV prevalence survey and a knowledge and attitude survey

    With an overall adult HIV prevalence of 15.3%, Namibia is facing one of the largest HIV epidemics in Africa. Young people aged 20 to 34 years constitute one of the groups at highest risk of HIV infection in Namibia. However, little is known about the impact of HIV on this group and its access to healthcare. The purpose of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence, to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS, and to assess access to healthcare among university students in Namibia.

  15. National teacher training HIV endline survey Malawi, 2009

    The first cohort of trainee teachers who participated in the Teacher Training College (TTC) programme finished in August 2009. Theatre for a Change (TfaC) contracted independent consultants to carry out an impact assessment on the TTC programme to identify its strengths and weaknesses. TfaC will use this impact assessment to inform the programme’s development. This report assesses the programme’s impact by comparing the results of the baseline survey, conducted at the beginning of the programme in October 2008, with the results of the endline survey, conducted in August 2009. …

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