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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Proposing a conceptual framework to address social norms that influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health

    With 1.8 billion young people aged 10-24 years in the world today, the cohort of adolescents and youth is the largest in history. Concurrently, millions of adolescents are confronting sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges, including high rates of unmet need for contraception, unintended pregnancy, and clandestine and unsafe abortion. Social norms or shared understandings of how oneself and others should behave can alleviate or exacerbate these challenges. …

  2. Sexual and reproductive health outcomes are positively associated with comprehensive sexual education exposure in Mexican high-school students

    This paper provides evidence of the potential beneficial effects of CSE on attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors regarding sexual and reproductive health among adolescents. In addition, it identifies areas that should be strengthened to increase the positive impact of CSE.

  3. Teaching lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health in a South African health sciences faculty: addressing the gap

    Background: People who identity as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) have specific health needs. Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health, as homophobia and heteronormativity persist as prejudices in society. LGBT patients often experience discrimination and prejudice in health care settings. While recent South African policies recognise the need for providing LGBT specific health care, no curricula for teaching about LGBT health related issues exist in South African health sciences faculties. …

  4. Cost analysis of school-based sexuality education programs in six countries

    Policy-makers who are making decisions on sexuality education programs face important economic questions: what are the costs of developing sexuality education programs; and what are the costs of implementing and scaling them up? This study responds to these questions by assessing the costs of six school-based sexuality education programs (Nigeria, Kenya, Indonesia, India, Estonia and the Netherlands). Cost analyses were carried out in schools that were fully implementing a SE program, as this best reflects the resources needed to run an effective program. …

  5. Education and risky sex in Africa: Unraveling the link between women’s education and reproductive health behaviors in Kenya

    Much research attention has been devoted to understanding the relationship between education and riskier sex-related behaviors and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. While in the early 1990s researchers found that increases in education were associated with a higher incidence of HIV/AIDS, this relationship appears to have reversed and better educated people, especially women, appear less likely to engage in riskier sex-related behaviors and have a lower incidence rate of HIV/AIDS. …

  6. Programas de Salud y Género. Mujeres con VIH/SIDA

    La proliferación de trabajos biológicos sobre el proceso del VIH/Sida contrasta con el abordaje de la problemática desde la experiencia de los que lo viven. De entre los involucrados, la mujer se vio implicada desde el comienzo como una de las poblaciones de riesgo de contagiar y de enfermarse. …

  7. Transactional sexual relationships, sexually transmitted infection risk, and condom use among young Black Women in peri-urban areas of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    This study evaluated the relationship between having a history of transactional sexual relationships with condom use and STI risk. Participants completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided self-collected vaginal swabs which were tested for chlamydia trachomatis, neisseria gonorrhea, and trichomonas vaginalis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare condom use rates and STI risk among women with a history of transactional sexual relationships to women with a history of casual sexual relationships and those with no history of casual sexual relationships. …

  8. Do peer educators make a difference? An evaluation of a youth-led HIV prevention model in Zambian schools

    Restless Development's youth-led model places trained Volunteer Peer Educators (VPEs), aged 18-25 years, in schools to teach HIV prevention and reproductive health (RH). VPEs also run youth centers, extracurricular and community-based activities. This evaluation assesses program effects on students' HIV/RH knowledge, attitudes and behaviors using a non-randomized quasi-experimental design among 2133 eighth and ninth grade students in 13 intervention versus 13 matched comparison schools and program costs. …

  9. Social outcome expectations regarding delayed sexual debut among adolescents in Mankweng, South Africa

    Aims: To describe outcome expectations related to delayed sexual transition, to examine the dimensionality and internal consistency of such expectations, and to examine variations in social outcome expectations across subgroups defined by demographic variables, indicators of socioeconomic status and predictors related to school and educational ambitions. Methods: Data stem from a survey among school students (grades 8-12) in Mankweng, Limpopo, South Africa (n=5,697). …

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Study on Reproductive Health Among Secondary School Students in Bolgatanga, Upper East Region, Ghana

    This study was conducted within the secondary school student population of the Bolgatanga community, in Northern Ghana, to learn about knowledge, attitude and practices of reproductive health of this adolescent student population. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected on adolescence perception, STIs and HIV/AIDS, family planning, male-female relationship, and vulnerability to sexual violence. …

  11. Reaching the youngest adolescents with reproductive health programs and services

    An article focuses on the emerging needs in providing information and reproductive health services to youth aged 10-14, one of the underserved groups and most subject to abuse and coerced sex. Included also in the paper are suggestions on effective approaches to reach these younger adolescents.

  12. Reproductive rights, advocacy and changing the law

    This issue of journal is about reproductive rights, advocacy and changing the law. Papers on abortion cover the role of political parties and political process in changing the law, the role of feminists and doctors in efforts to get hospitals in the context of restrictive law, and efforts to get nurses and other health workers to confront their own prejudices against abortion in order to make service provision women-centred. Two papers delve into the meaning of reproductive health and rights and the role of advocacy in implementing changes in reproductive health law, policies and services.

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents in developed countries

    This article addresses the current incidence and recent trends of STDs among adolescents aged 15-19 and young adults aged 20-24 in the developed world.

  14. Health seeking behaviour and the control of sexually transmitted disease

    What people do when they have symptoms or suspicion of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) has major implications for transmission and, consequently, for disease control. Delays in seeking and obtaining diagnosis and treatment can allow for continued transmission and the greater probability of adverse sequelae. An understanding of health seeking behaviour is therefore important if STD control programmes are to be effective. However, taboos and stigma related to sex and STD in most cultures mean that gaining a true picture is difficult and requires considerable cultural sensitivity. …

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