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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. A review of generalist and specialist community health workers for delivering adolescent health services in sub-Saharan Africa

    The health of adolescents is increasingly seen as an important international priority because the world’s one point eight billion young people (aged 10 to 24 years) accounts for 15.5% of the global burden of disease and are disproportionately located in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Furthermore, an estimated 70% of premature adult deaths are attributable to unhealthy behaviors often initiated in adolescence (such as smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity). …

  2. Individual and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse and the association with the circumstances of first sex among youth from six sub-Saharan African countries

    Youth who engage in early and premarital sex are at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Most prevention programs ignore the mediating influence of the threat and experience of violence on these outcomes. Using nationally representative data from Lesotho, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, the autors used multivariate analyses to examine the association between individual- and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse on the age and circumstances of sexual debut among female youth. The youth sample sizes ranged from a high of 5007 in Malawi to a low of 3050 in Lesotho. …

  3. Movie: Into the hands of women

    Fulaas is one of our community based distributors. He’s also a volunteer. This film follows him as he dispenses family planning advice and contraceptives to villagers in Oromo, Ethiopia. Without Fulaas, and others like him, there would be very little access to contraception in rural Ethiopia. Development depends on getting the right supplies - contraceptives, condoms, medicines, and equipment – to the people who need them most. And that depends on our volunteers. They are part of the largest voluntary organization in sexual and reproductive health and rights. …

  4. Programs to address child marriage: Framing the problem

    Child marriage violates girls’ human rights and adversely affects their health and well-being. While age at marriage is increasing in most regions of the developing world, early marriage persists for large populations. Worldwide, it is estimated that more than one out of three women aged 20–24 were married before age 18, and one out of seven were married before age 15. There is great variation in child marriage practices across and within regions and between ethnic and religious groups. Eradicating child marriage has long been on the agenda of the United Nations and of individual countries. …

  5. When Girls' Lives Matter: Ending Forced and Early Marriage in Cameroon

    The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in awareness about early and forced marriage of girls as a widespread violation of human rights. In short, early and forced marriage exacerbate gender inequality and the likelihood of poor outcomes throughout life. Combining public education about the negative effects of early and forced marriage with positive preventive strategies is valuable. The Association for the Struggle Against Violence Against Women (ALVF) in Cameroon is one such example. …

  6. Addressing sexual violence and HIV risk among married adolescent girls in rural Nyanza, Kenya

    HIV infection is much higher among adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa than among boys. In settings such as Nyanza Province, Kenya, rates of HIV infection are extremely high, and evidence is increasing in some settings that girls who are married are much more likely to be infected with HIV, compared with their unmarried sexually active counterparts. This brief describes a program addressing the problem of sexual violence and the risk of HIV transmission within marriage in Kenya's Nyanza Province. …

  7. Passions and Portraits - Young women raise HIV/AIDS awareness in South Asia

    In 2005 the IPPF, South Asia Regional Office invited 10 young women between the ages of 16-20 to take part in an exciting new initiative that would ultimately combine HIV/AIDS awareness with photography. These 10 young women, in partnership with five IPPF Member Associations, developed skills in HIV/AIDS peer education and photograpy over a four-day workshop that they could then put into practice in their respective countries at the community level. …

  8. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission among the adolescent girls in slum areas

    This cross sectional study in the Solapur Municipal Corporation (Western Maharashtra) looked at 400 adolescent girls' knowledge on HIV/AIDS. Simple random sampling was used to identify the respondents. Data was gathered through interviews. When compared to a study conducted among adolescents in South Delhi and another among youth in Vadodara district, India (McManus & Dhar, 2008; Kotecha et al. 2011), a larger percentage of girls did not know how HIV is transmitted (54.25% versus 33% and 19.2% respectively). …

  9. Community Innovation: Achieving sexual and reproductive health and rights for women and girls through the HIV response

    Compiled by UNAIDS and the ATHENA Network, it presents case studies, from across sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and North America, pioneering community undertakings to advance women's sexual and reproductive health and rights through the HIV response and vice-versa, from different community perspectives. This report recognizes that women face unique challenges to access and fulfill their sexual and reproductive health and rights, including gender-based violence, and therefore have less access to HIV prevention, care and support services.

  10. Understanding adolescent girls' protection strategies against HIV: an exploratory study in urban Lusaka

    Being young and female are two central aspects of vulnerability to HIV which intersect in the lives of adolescent girls. Both before and within marriage, girls and young women are especially vulnerable to contracting HIV as a result of both their biological susceptibility as well as their relative powerlessness within sexual relationships, the primary means of transmission. Girls and young women are disproportionally infected and affected by HIV and AIDS. …

  11. Derechos Humanos y SIDA: Guía para promotores comunitarios

    Esta Guía es el producto de la construcción colectiva impulsada por Fundación Huésped, a través del trabajo en taller realizado con especialistas y promotores de cuatro Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil que desarrollan experiencias de promoción comunitaria con diversos grupos de población considerados vulnerables: niñas, niños y adolescentes, población migrante, personas en situación de encierro, personas que viven con VIH/SIDA. Se explican los derechos humanos y derechos de las personas que viven con VIH, y se proponen estrategias específicas para cada uno deálos grupos enunciados.

  12. Plano Integrado de Enfrentamento da Feminização da Epidemia de Aids e outras DST

    Plano Integrado de Enfrentamento da Feminização da Epidemia de Aids e outras DST e um documento elaborado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil em 2007. Resultado de uma parceria que procurou reunir esforços e alçar voo a partir da articulação intersetorial e da participação de parceiras/os da sociedade civil, o Plano tem como elemento fundamental o enfrentamento das múltiplas vulnerabilidades que contribuem para que as mulheres brasileiras estejam mais suscetíveis à infecção pelo HIV e a outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. …

  13. Girls' Power Initiative. Training manual. Level 3. Adolescent Sexuality, sexual and reproductive health and rights

    This document is a training manual designed to help facilitators to provide sexuality education (human sexuality, sexual and reproductive health, rights and responsibilities). This training manual (level 3) was produced and revised by Girl's power initiative (GPI), a Nigerian NGO in 2003. …

  14. Pregnancy-related school dropout and prior school performance in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    This study is an article extracted from "Studies in family planning", special issue on Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive health in sub-Saharan Africa, published in December 2008. This study uses data from KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa to examine the factors associated with schoolgirl pregnancy and subsequent educational pathways. …

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