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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Coming of age in the classroom: religious and cultural barriers to comprehensive sexuality education

    This paper elucidates evidence which underscores anxieties and panic about sexuality and sexual behaviour of young people influenced by movements advancing a distinct religious identity, and the implications for advocacy on advancing Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR). Synthesised in this document is evidence from two countries - Bangladesh and India - on Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE), an area of controversy (to varying degree) in both countries. Evidence from each country stem from national studies on the influence of religion on CSE, and are qualitative in nature. …

  2. Women living with HIV speak out against violence: A collection of essays and reflections of women living with and affected by HIV

    Violence against women and girls is an unacceptable violation of basic human rights. It also is so widespread that ending it must be a global public health priority. An estimated one in three women is beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused by an intimate partner during her lifetime. Intimate partner violence has been shown to increase the risk of HIV infection by around 50%, and violence (and the fear of violence) deters women and girls from seeking services for HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.

  3. Minding the gap in Alexandria: Talking to girls in schools about reproductive health

    Reproductive health (RH) is one of the cornerstones of an individual’s health and well-being, and an important component of a country’s human social development. Limited access to RH information among female adolescents can increase their vulnerability to health problems. Therefore, it is important to provide them with accurate and age-appropriate information. In the Middle East and North Africa, cultural norms dictate that girls should not be exposed to information about RH until they are married. …

  4. When Girls' Lives Matter: Ending Forced and Early Marriage in Cameroon

    The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in awareness about early and forced marriage of girls as a widespread violation of human rights. In short, early and forced marriage exacerbate gender inequality and the likelihood of poor outcomes throughout life. Combining public education about the negative effects of early and forced marriage with positive preventive strategies is valuable. The Association for the Struggle Against Violence Against Women (ALVF) in Cameroon is one such example. …

  5. Left without a choice. Barriers to reproductive health in Indonesia

    This report reflects Amnesty International's recent analysis on the extent to which certain Indonesian laws have incorporated international human rights law and standards, including provisions contained in CEDAW, to which Indonesia is a state party. In particular, it builds on a series of open letters addressed to Indonesian authorities in late 2009 and early 2010, which highlighted some of the shortcomings of certain laws in guaranteeing non-discrimination and sexual and reproductive rights. …

  6. Understanding Women's HIV Risk Perception in Postsocialist Georgia: Role of Knowledge, Behavioral, and Contextual Factors

    This dissertation explores the influences of HIV knowledge, health behaviors, and context-specific socioeconomic and sociocultural factors on HIV perceived risk among women in the Republic of Georgia. For effective HIV/AIDS prevention, individuals who perceive themselves at some risk of contracting HIV are more likely to reduce risk behaviors. Theories of health behavior incorporate perceived risk as an important component of HIV prevention, but they fail to incorporate factors influencing that risk perception. …

  7. Diamonds: Stories of Women from the Asia Pacific Network of People Living with HIV

    This is a compilation of stories about the lives of women living with HIV in the Asia-Pacific region (Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Cambodia, India, THaïland, China, India, Malaysia, Viet Nam). Each woman has overcome incredible challenges to become a strong leader, advocate and role model for other HIV-positive women. These women are like diamonds, formed under immense pressure, hewn from the darkness to shine, strongest and most brilliant of all gems.

  8. Mainstreaming gender equality into national response to HIV and AIDS Nigerian case study

    This book describes the successful efforts to mainstream gender into the National Strategic Framework (NSF). Part 1 presents the situation analysis that set out the context of the Nigerian case study. Part 2 describes the processes employed and steps taken to mainstream gender into the NSF, and highlights the achievements, challenges and lessons learned from the Nigerian experience. The book provides a model that other countries can emulate.

  9. ICRW policy advisory on child marriage

    The paper discusses a widespread problem of child marriage - a marriage that occurs before the age of 18: child marriage is a human rights violation; causes and health consequences of child marriage; and actions to end child marriage.

  10. Socio-cultural aspects of menstruation in an urban slum in Delhi, India

    The paper attempts to understand the experience of menstruation in the socio-cultural context of an urban Indian slum. Observations were gathered as part of a larger study of reproductive tract infections in women in Delhi, using both qualitative and quantitative methods.

  11. Gender Inequalities in primary Schooling: The roles of poverty and adverse cultural practice

    This paper suggests a simple model for the relationships between poverty, schooling and gender inequality. It argues that poverty at both national and household levels is associated with an under-enrolment of school age children, but that the gendered outcomes of such under enrolment are the product of cultural practice, rather than poverty per se. Using detailed case study material from two African countries, evidence is presented to show the variety and extent of adverse cultural practice which impede the attendance and performance of girls at school, relative to boys. …

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