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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Women living with HIV speak out against violence: A collection of essays and reflections of women living with and affected by HIV

    Violence against women and girls is an unacceptable violation of basic human rights. It also is so widespread that ending it must be a global public health priority. An estimated one in three women is beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused by an intimate partner during her lifetime. Intimate partner violence has been shown to increase the risk of HIV infection by around 50%, and violence (and the fear of violence) deters women and girls from seeking services for HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.

  2. Gender Dynamics and Sexual Norms among Youth in Mali in the Context of HIV/AIDS Prevention

    Socially constructed ideas of gender norms and values attached to sexuality need to be considered when aiming to build the young people’s capacity to adopt HIV preventive behaviours. We conducted ten focus groups and sixteen individual interviews to explore sexual norms among youth in Bamako. Premarital sex, multiple partnering, condom use and transactional sex were discussed. The findings suggest that young people’s sexual norms are shaped by kin or authoritative elders as well as by external influences coming from Western culture. …

  3. Perspectives on intimate partner violence in Swaziland amongst 18–29-year-old men undergoing medical circumcision

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is perceived as a major contributor to HIV transmission in Swaziland. This exploratory study aimed to develop a culturally-specific understanding of men's perspectives of IPV. Focus group methods were used to gather information from 45 young urban Swazi men who had undergone medical male circumcision. A thematic analysis was conducted focussing on the manifestations of IPV and socio-cultural and economic factors which underpin, circumstances which trigger and social responses to IPV. …

  4. Go Girls! Visual Briefs

    This booklet contains flipcharts on a variety of topics to help communities identify ways to make environment safer for girls.

  5. Left without a choice. Barriers to reproductive health in Indonesia

    This report reflects Amnesty International's recent analysis on the extent to which certain Indonesian laws have incorporated international human rights law and standards, including provisions contained in CEDAW, to which Indonesia is a state party. In particular, it builds on a series of open letters addressed to Indonesian authorities in late 2009 and early 2010, which highlighted some of the shortcomings of certain laws in guaranteeing non-discrimination and sexual and reproductive rights. …

  6. The Girl Effect: What Do Boys Have to Do with It?

    This paper argues for a gender and developmental perspective to explore "what boys have to do with the 'girl effect'." This approach seeks to combine the lenses of gender and developmental psychology to better understand gendered behavior in adolescents over their life cycle, with a focus on adolescence (generally defined as ages 10 to 19) in order to develop programs and undertake policy efforts to promote equitable and healthy gender identities and norms with benefits for both girls and boys in a gender relational perspective.

  7. Understanding Women's HIV Risk Perception in Postsocialist Georgia: Role of Knowledge, Behavioral, and Contextual Factors

    This dissertation explores the influences of HIV knowledge, health behaviors, and context-specific socioeconomic and sociocultural factors on HIV perceived risk among women in the Republic of Georgia. For effective HIV/AIDS prevention, individuals who perceive themselves at some risk of contracting HIV are more likely to reduce risk behaviors. Theories of health behavior incorporate perceived risk as an important component of HIV prevention, but they fail to incorporate factors influencing that risk perception. …

  8. Gender relations and sexual communication among female students in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam

    Young women's ability to pursue a safer-sex life in line with their wishes is crucial to their sexual health. Although some previous observations have suggested that young women's lack of ability to negotiate safer sex is due to gender power imbalances in the culture of Vietnam, studies that have tested this hypothesis explicitly and quantitatively are few and far between. The present study aimed to test the association between perceived gender relations and perceived self-efficacy in communicating sexual matters among undergraduate female students in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam. …

  9. These days virginity is just a feeling: heterosexuality and change in young urban Vietnamese men

    This paper argues that young Vietnamese men's beliefs around women's changing sexual identities and habits generate some anxiety around their own heterosexual abilities, while contributing to growing doubts around 'traditional' masculine advantage within sexual relations. It explores this notion in regard to eight Vietnamese men aged 18-30 years, interviewed over 13 months of fieldwork in Hanoi, Vietnam. …

  10. HIV in the Middle East

    HIV in the Middle East is a short article written by C. Makhlouf Obermeyer from the Department of HIV/AIDS of the WHO in Geneva, Switzerland, in 2006. It summarizes what is known about the HIV epidemic in the Middle East and north Africa region and examines the extent to which lower prevalence can be attributed to cultural factors, particularly those related to the practice of Islam and gender. …

  11. Mainstreaming gender equality into national response to HIV and AIDS Nigerian case study

    This book describes the successful efforts to mainstream gender into the National Strategic Framework (NSF). Part 1 presents the situation analysis that set out the context of the Nigerian case study. Part 2 describes the processes employed and steps taken to mainstream gender into the NSF, and highlights the achievements, challenges and lessons learned from the Nigerian experience. The book provides a model that other countries can emulate.

  12. Gender Inequalities in primary Schooling: The roles of poverty and adverse cultural practice

    This paper suggests a simple model for the relationships between poverty, schooling and gender inequality. It argues that poverty at both national and household levels is associated with an under-enrolment of school age children, but that the gendered outcomes of such under enrolment are the product of cultural practice, rather than poverty per se. Using detailed case study material from two African countries, evidence is presented to show the variety and extent of adverse cultural practice which impede the attendance and performance of girls at school, relative to boys. …

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