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This working paper analyses relations between adoption of a demographic policy, application of family planning programs, progress of contraceptive use and fertility decline in Ivory Coast. The available documentation shows that the evolution of fertility policy is characterized by two periods: a phase of policy of population growth prior to 1991 and a phase of neo-malthusianism afterwards. Many factors explain the policy during the first period: for example the positive effect of population growth on development was then widespread and the conception that any birth is advantageous was also admitted. The economic crisis and the international assistance terms led to the second phase. Despite the policy before 1991, the activities of family planning developed by a number of NGOs were tolerate as far as the had a sanitary purpose. However, the supply of reproductive health services increased only after the adoption of a population policy. Data from various surveys reveal that the progress of contraceptive use and the fertility decline took place in the early 1980's. The intensity of fertility decline according to 2.2 children the last two decades in the whole country. It varies according to the place of residence and the level of education. At the same time, the level of contraceptive use has progressed since the 1980's and methods of fertility control have changed according to the women's categories.