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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Connecting the private and the public: pregnancy, exclusion, and the expansion of schooling in Africa

    In a number of countries in Africa, young women who become pregnant are excluded from school. This article presents a critique of policy and practice in this area drawing partly on Diana Leonard's scholarship concerning the relational dynamic of gender, generation, social division, and household forms. Much of the policy prescription of large global organisations concerned with the expansion of secondary schooling in Africa does not sufficiently take account of the connection between the gender dynamics of the private and that of the public outlined in Leonard's work. …

  2. Perceptions of policy duty bearers on the inclusive education policy for pregnant teenagers in South Africa

    Post-apartheid, South Africa democratised access to education as enshrined in the country’s Constitutional Bill of Rights of 1996. This also includes making education accessible to pregnant teenagers as provided for by other post-apartheid legal provisions that prohibit discrimination in education. This study explored the perceptions of education policy duty bearers on the inclusion of pregnant learners in formal schools. …

  3. Teen pregnancy and education: politics of knowledge, research, and practice

    This article explores the politics surrounding the education of pregnant/mothering students. Utilizing Title IX, which guarantees the rights of pregnant/mothering students to an education equal to her peers, as an analytical lens, the author specifically identifies how absences in knowledge, research, and practice about the education of pregnant/mothering students are constructed. These absences, which are not neutral, construct discourses that affect the provision of education to pregnant/mothering students. …

  4. The effect of negative school climate on academic outcomes for LGBT youth and the role of in-school supports

    For many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, intolerance and prejudice make school a hostile and dangerous place. This study examined simultaneously the effects of a negative school climate on achievement and the role that school-based supports—safe school policies, supportive school personnel, and gay–straight alliance (GSA) clubs—may have in offsetting these effects. Data were drawn from a survey of a diverse sample of 5,730 LGBT youths who had attended secondary schools in the United States. …

  5. Heterosexism in high school and victimization among lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning students

    This study examined relationships between perceived heterosexism in high school policies and programs, social environments, and victimization rates among lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning (LGBQ) students. Secondary analyses of Internet survey data from a large cohort of LGBQ students (N = 2037; 76% male, 82% White; mean age = 16.07; 56% gay or lesbian; 28% bisexual; 16% questioning) yielded moderate correlations between perceptions of non-discrimination and harassment policies, inclusive programs, and the prevalence and tolerance of anti-LGBQ harassment. …

  6. Taking over the school: student gangs as a strategy for dealing with homophobic bullying in an urban public school district

    This article discusses the African American lesbian gang, DTO (Dykes Taking Over), as an example of a student-initiated strategy for dealing with homophobic bullying in an urban American school district. A series of alleged incidents of same-sex sexual harassment by gang members on heterosexual students illustrate how lesbian/bisexual threat was used by these women to re-establish a power differential after they experienced bullying based on their sexuality and gender expression. …

  7. Effects of general and homophobic victimization on adolescents' psychosocial and educational concerns: the importance of intersecting identities and parent support

    Many adolescents experience peer victimization, which often can be homophobic. Applying the minority stress model with attention to intersecting social identities, this study tested the effects of general and homophobic victimization on several educational outcomes through suicidality and school belonging among 15,923 adolescents in Grades 7 through 12 on account of their sexual orientation and race/ethnicity. Parent support also was tested as a moderator of these effects. …

  8. Social policy report: safe schools policy for LGBTQ students

    Two proposed U.S. federal laws would provide explicit protection for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) students in public schools. These federal laws follow actions by many states and school districts to define and implement laws or policies to protect the safety of LGBTQ students in schools. Research during the past decade has shown that LGBTQ youth are a vulnerable population, and that the negative school experiences of LGBTQ students often contribute to their vulnerability. …

  9. Educators' beliefs about raising lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues in the schools: the experience in Ontario, Canada

    This study investigated the experiences of 132 LGBT and heterosexual teachers and school administrators in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed a survey that asked about their comfort addressing LGBT issues in the school setting, how safe they felt, how active they were, and their perceptions of barriers. There were few differences between the LGBT and heterosexual respondents. However, respondents whose school district had an anti-LGBT harassment policy felt more supported, comfortable, and protected. …

  10. British Columbia

    Most school districts in British Columbia have failed to address homophobic bullying through programs and policies related to school safety. Two exceptions, namely the Victoria and Vancouver school districts, have adopted policies that specify homophobic bullying and education for students, staff, and administrators.

  11. Conversations in equity and social justice: constructing safe schools for queer youth

    The paper is a critique of discourse focused on at-risk behaviour and homophobic bullying. The paper argues that conversations around homophobic bullying must include discussions of doing equity and achieving social justice, in which the ultimate goal of constructing safe schools is achieved through the utter transformation of school culture. Failure to do anything less continues to license homophobia and makes predictable and inevitable violence against queer youth. …

  12. Bullying and homophobia in Canadian schools: the politics of policies, programs, and educational leadership

    During the past ten years, attention on bullying has intensified among educators, parents, journalists, and educational researchers in the wake of high-profile incidents of bullying in some Canadian schools. Safe schools policies and programs have proliferated as a result. However, the issue of homophobia - a pervasive form of bullying - tends to be absent from public discussion, anti-bullying programs, and so-called safe schools policies. This essay explores the politics of bullying and of related policies and programs. …

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