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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Homotolerance and heterosexuality as Norwegian values

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research and prevention programs. Recent studies concerning LGBT youth in Norway do indicate, however, that young Norwegians in general find it difficult to imagine themselves living a nonheterosexual life. …

  2. I am the hate that dare not speak its name: dealing with homophobia in secondary schools

    This paper describes the outcomes of a small-scale project involving 19 secondary schools. The project investigated how effectively issues of homophobic bullying and sexualities were addressed through secondary schools' formal policies and areas of the curriculum. Outcomes indicate that sexual orientation was mentioned in two-thirds of Equal Opportunities policies but was not mentioned specifically in any Anti-Bullying policies. Staff highlighted the need for training in issues surrounding sexualities, homophobic bullying and clarification of Section 28. …

  3. Straight talking: explorations on homosexuality and homophobia in secondary schools in Ireland

    This paper outlines research that was conducted among students, parents, teachers and senior management teams in six secondary schools in the Greater Dublin area of Ireland. The research involved semi-structured interviews and observations. The findings of this research are significant in that it was the first time any data had been gathered on this topic directly from those within the school system. …

  4. Fashioning sexual selves: examining the care of the self in urban adolescent sexuality and gender discourses

    This paper presents data from a qualitative study of urban high school students that asked students to reflect on the experiences of their lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, and questioning peers. The focus group participants wrote letters to an imaginary new student at their school, discussed what they see and hear in their schools, and kept journals recording a week's worth of observations. …

  5. Achieving real equality: a work in progress for LGBT youth in Spain

    Although lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have achieved a great level of legal equality in Spain, social equality is still to come, especially for adolescents. This article reports results from three different studies. The first, in 2005, using a multidisciplinary approach, confirmed that homophobia is present in secondary schools in Madrid. The second, in 2006, was a small survey of LGBT teenagers' on-line postings and internet interviews; and the third, conducted in 2007, analyzed more than 4500 questionnaires completed by high school student in two Spanish towns. …

  6. From silence to safety and beyond: historical trends in addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender issues in K-12 schools

    The purpose of this article is to provide an historical overview of changing perspectives in education practice and literature on addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) issues in public K-12 schools. This article describes how the presentation and analysis of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues in the past 80 years have evolved into one of the primary points of contention in the battle over what values related to sexuality and gender schools should reflect. …

  7. Do my teachers care I'm gay? Israeli lesbigay school students' experiences at their schools

    This empirical study explores the subjective experiences of Israeli lesbigay school students and their perceptions of the school climate. It provides descriptive data on different socio-demographic characteristics of Israeli lesbigay youth and presents the participants' experiences of school climate in the context of lesbigay issues. Further, it explores how students' characteristics, school environment, and school resources affect students' sense of belonging to school and sense of respect by peers. …

  8. Bullying and homophobia in Canadian schools: the politics of policies, programs, and educational leadership

    During the past ten years, attention on bullying has intensified among educators, parents, journalists, and educational researchers in the wake of high-profile incidents of bullying in some Canadian schools. Safe schools policies and programs have proliferated as a result. However, the issue of homophobia - a pervasive form of bullying - tends to be absent from public discussion, anti-bullying programs, and so-called safe schools policies. This essay explores the politics of bullying and of related policies and programs. …

  9. Invisible difference in space: the role of different spaces in homophobic bullying in schools

    This small-scale piece of research was undertaken to examine, retrospectively, the experiences of 10 men, ages 27 through 53, in terms of what constitutes and influences homophobic bullying in the private and state school contexts in the United Kingdom. Using standpoint epistemology and a life histories method, the author investigates what is meant by homophobia and homophobic bullying; tries to identify why respondents think the bullying they suffered was homophobic in nature; and identifies and develops an understanding of the role different spaces play within school. …

  10. Bullying in schools towards sexual minority youth

    Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, questioning and intersex (GLBTQI) youth, and those perceived to be GLBTQI, face extensive verbal and physical bullying in schools. Although increasing attention has been made at examining the safety concerns of sexual minority (GLBTQI) youth, there remain important gaps in the literature as well as significant sampling limitations. …

  11. Evaluation of a school-based HIV prevention intervention among Yemeni adolescents

    This article describes an evaluation of a school-based peer education intervention for HIV prevention among students in 27 high schools in Aden, Yemen. The intervention was developed after a survey among the same population in 2005, which revealed a high level of stigma toward people living with HIV (PLWH) and a low level of HIV knowledge. In a quasi-experimental design, students who received the peer education intervention (78.6%) were compared with students who did not receive the intervention (21.4%). No systematic procedure was applied in selecting students for the intervention condition. …

  12. Sexual risk among orphaned adolescents: is country-level HIV prevalence an important factor?

    Previous studies from sub-Saharan Africa have found that orphans experience increased sexual risk compared to non-orphans. This article developed a theoretical framework for the investigation of determinants of HIV risk and used it to generate specific hypotheses regarding the effect of country-level HIV prevalence on the sexual risk experience of orphans. It expected that countries with high HIV prevalence would experience a higher prevalence of orphanhood. …

  13. Intimate partner violence, relationship power inequity, and incidence of HIV infection in young women in South Africa: a cohort study

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that intimate partner violence and gender inequity in relationships are associated with increased prevalence of HIV in women. Yet temporal sequence and causality have been questioned, and few HIV prevention programmes address these issues. The article assessed whether intimate partner violence and relationship power inequity increase risk of incident HIV infection in South African women. …

  14. Gender relations and sexual communication among female students in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam

    Young women's ability to pursue a safer-sex life in line with their wishes is crucial to their sexual health. Although some previous observations have suggested that young women's lack of ability to negotiate safer sex is due to gender power imbalances in the culture of Vietnam, studies that have tested this hypothesis explicitly and quantitatively are few and far between. The present study aimed to test the association between perceived gender relations and perceived self-efficacy in communicating sexual matters among undergraduate female students in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam. …

  15. Legislation contagion: the spread of problematic new HIV laws in Western Africa

    Ce numérode la Revue VIH/SIDA, Droit et politique évoque la question de la la législation mise en oeuvre en réponse au VIH et au SIDA. Les lois modèles peuvent être un élément utile à la lutte contre le VIH/sida, mais à condition d'être solidement ancrées dans les principes des droits humains. En 2004, l'organisme AWARE-HIV/AIDS a préparé une loi type sur le VIH, pour l'Afrique occidentale. Quelques pays de cette région ont déjà rédigé des lois nationales fondées sur cette loi type. Dans ce principal article de la revue, certaines des principales dispositions de cette loi type sont étudiées. …

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