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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Systematic review of the role of external contributors in school substance use education

    Purpose: A literature review was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of external contributors (anyone other than a teacher at the school) in delivering school‐based drug, alcohol and tobacco education (substance use education) programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The review focused upon literature published from 1990 onwards in English. Published reports were identified via electronic searches, supplemented by hand searching of relevant journals. Relevant organisations and individuals were contacted to identify low circulation, difficult to acquire (grey) literature. …

  2. Evidence-based practice in school substance use prevention: fidelity of implementation under real-world conditions

    Fidelity of program implementation under real-world conditions is a critical issue in the dissemination of evidence-based school substance use prevention curricula. Program effects are diminished when programs are implemented with poor fidelity. The authors assessed five domains of fidelity—adherence, exposure (dosage), quality of delivery, participant responsiveness and program differentiation (lack of contamination from other programs)—in a subset of respondents (N = 342) from a national random sample of public schools with middle school grades (N = 1721). …

  3. Interventions for adolescent substance abuse: an overview of systematic reviews

    Many unhealthy behaviors often begin during adolescence and represent major public health challenges. Substance abuse has a major impact on individuals, families, and communities, as its effects are cumulative, contributing to costly social, physical, and mental health problems. The authors conducted an overview of systematic reviews to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent substance abuse among adolescents. They report findings from a total of 46 systematic reviews focusing on interventions for smoking/tobacco use, alcohol use, drug use, and combined substance abuse. …

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis: prevalence of alcohol use among young people in eastern Africa

    The study’s objective is the systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of alcohol use among young people (age 15–24 years) in eastern Africa to estimate prevalence of alcohol use and determine the extent of use of standardised screening questionnaires in alcohol studies. Based on the review results, the authors draw the conclusion that alcohol use and problem drinking were common among diverse groups of young people in eastern Africa, indicating the urgent need for alcohol-focused interventions in this population. …

  5. Investigation of teaching the integrated topics on drug abuse in secondary school curriculum

    The problem of this study was to investigate the teaching of the integrated topics on drug abuse in the secondary school curriculum as a strategy to wipe out the problem of drug abuse among students in Machakos District, Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to: establish the prevalence of drug abuse at the secondary school level according to gender, locality (urban/rural), boarding or day and religious practice, and establish the effect of teaching integrated topics on prevalence rate of drug abuse. …

  6. Substance abuse among public secondary school students: prevalence, strategies and challenges for public secondary school managers in Kenya: a case study of Kisumu East sub county

    Substance abuse among public secondary school students is reality that is spreading at an alarming rate. If not checked, it could destroy the youth who are in their formative stage in life. Its outcomes include school dropouts, injuries, loss of lives, destruction of properties, moral decadence, misallocation of resources, indiscipline and compromised academic standards. According to the findings of a study conducted in 2005 on substance abuse in five major cities in Kenya, Kisumu and Nakuru lead the rest of the major cities and towns in the country in the prevalence of substance abuse. …

  7. Ineffectiveness of AIDS education and HIV antibody testing in reducing high-risk behaviors among injection drug users

    This study assessed the effectiveness of education in reducing high-risk HIV-related behaviors in 313 injecting drug users. Participants were recruited and high risk behavior evaluated at baseline and four months following intervention, based on a structured interview. Participants were allocated to one of three groups: AIDS education, AIDS education with optional HIV testing, or a wait list. While no significant differences in high risk behaviors were found between the different arms of the study, overall the entire sample decreased its high risk behavior.

  8. Behavioral Outcomes of AIDS Educational Interventions for Drug Users in Short-Term Treatment

    This study compares the behavioral impact of informational vs enhanced small-group educational interventions among 407 drug users in a 21-day detoxification and rehabilitation program in Massachusetts, U.S.A. Sexual and drug-related behavior were analyzed using logistic regression at a follow-up visit after the program. Among users at lower risk, the enhanced approach was more effective at reducing injection-related risks associated with HIV transmission. Among users at higher risk, the informational approach was more effective. …

  9. Effects of drug relief hospital-based AIDS educational methods on drug users

    This study aimed to identify effective methods to train medical personnel to educate drug users on HIV prevention. One hundred and sixty-one participants from 13 provinces were recruited at a drug relief hospital in Beijing, China. Average age was about 35.21 years, years of drug addiction was 7, and number of drug relief treatments received in past was 5.5. Participants knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was tested before and after the HIV awareness training. Results show that there was a statistically significant increase in knowledge on these issues after education. …

  10. The perspectives of injection drug users regarding safer injecting education delivered through a supervised injecting facility

    Unsafe injection practices can lead to HIV and HCV transmission as well as other bacterial and viral infections. Vancouver established North America's first supervised injection facility (SIF) to address such harms among injecting drug users (IDU). This study looks at their experiences receiving safer injecting education within the SIF. Through semi-structured, qualitative interviews, the experiences of 50 IDU were collected. Their testimonies indicate that gaps in knowledge exist among local IDU, often leading to unsafe injecting. …

  11. Out yonder: sexual-minority adolescents in rural communities in British Colombia

    We compared sexual-minority adolescents living in rural communities with their peers in urban areas in British Columbia, exploring differences in emotional health, victimization experiences, sexual behaviors, and substance use. We analyzed a population-based sample of self-identified lesbian, gay, or bisexual respondents from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey of 2003 (weighted n = 6905). We tested rural-urban differences separately by gender with the 2 test and logistic regressions. We found many similarities and several differences. …

  12. Drug use and HIV/AIDS in Thailand

    A series of six info sheets on legal and ethical issues related to drug use and HIV/AIDS in Thailand. It includes HIV and HCV in Thailand: implications for national drug policy, harm reduction: lessons from the region, sterile syringe programs, opioid substitution treatment, outreach and information programs, harm reduction in prison and detention facilities.

  13. The HIV Epidemic in Yunnan Province, China, 1989-2007

    The article aims to investigate the characteristics and trends in the HIV epidemic in Yunnan Province, China, between 1989 and 2007. It shows that the HIV epidemic in Yunnan has progressed to a concentrated epidemic. Future efforts must focus not only on groups at risk for primary infection (injecting drug users, men who have sex with men, and female sex workers) but also on their low-risk sexual partners.

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