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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. School experiences of HIV-positive secondary school learners on ARV treatment in Namibia

    Although the provision of life-saving antiretroviral (ARV) treatment is central to the medical and policy response to the HIV pandemic, relatively little research in the SADC region and in Namibia particularly, attends to HIV-positive people's experiences and the social effects of taking ARV treatment, with children being least focused on. The study from which the paper is drawn contributes to this dearth by examining the experiences of HIV-positive high school learners on ARV treatment in Khomas Region, Namibia. …

  2. A case study of school support and the psychological, emotional and behavioural consequences of HIV and AIDS on adolescents

    Various studies have reported a huge increase in the numbers of orphaned adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effects on their psychological, emotional and behavioural development. Yet, their needs are seldom recognised or adequately addressed in policy and programmes.This article uses a qualitative study to report the experiences of 11 orphaned adolescents (5 boys and 6 girls aged between 15 and 18 years) affected by HIV and AIDS in a secondary school (in Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa) and the school support provided by them. …

  3. Substance abuse among public secondary school students: prevalence, strategies and challenges for public secondary school managers in Kenya: a case study of Kisumu East sub county

    Substance abuse among public secondary school students is reality that is spreading at an alarming rate. If not checked, it could destroy the youth who are in their formative stage in life. Its outcomes include school dropouts, injuries, loss of lives, destruction of properties, moral decadence, misallocation of resources, indiscipline and compromised academic standards. According to the findings of a study conducted in 2005 on substance abuse in five major cities in Kenya, Kisumu and Nakuru lead the rest of the major cities and towns in the country in the prevalence of substance abuse. …

  4. The provision of a health promoting environment for HIV/AIDS education: the case of Namibian senior secondary schools

    HIV/AIDS programmes in schools ultimately intend to decrease high risk sexual behaviour. One factor facilitating this outcome is a strong health promoting environment in the school. This paper reports a study surveying the health promoting environments supporting HIV/AIDS education in Namibian senior secondary schools. It develops a two dimensional model for classifying the strength of a school’s health promoting environment. The findings show that schools have different strengths of health promoting environments linked more to their size than to a rural or urban location. …

  5. Factors associated with teachers’ implementation of HIV/AIDS education in secondary schools in Cape Town, South Africa

    This study investigated the factors influencing whether high school teachers implemented HIV/AIDS education. The independent variables included constructs derived from expectancy value theories, teachers’ generic dispositions, their training experience, characteristics of their interactive context and the school climate. We conducted a postal survey of 579 teachers responsible for AIDS education in all 193 public high schools in Cape Town. Questionnaires were completed and returned by 324 teachers (56% response rate) from 125 schools. …

  6. Lesbian teachers' identity, power and the public/private boundary

    This article examines lesbian teachers' negotiation of the public/private boundary in the school, focusing on identity management in the context of the heterosexualised space of this public institution. The study is based on interviews conducted with six lesbian teachers working in London secondary schools. I examine the teachers' responses, and the ways in which they mediate the ‘polite’ silences in relation to lesbian and gay sexuality, as situated in a framework of liberal tolerance found in public and political domains. …

  7. Gendered harassment in secondary schools: understanding teachers' (non) interventions

    This article provides an analysis of teachers’ perceptions of and responses to gendered harassment in Canadian secondary schools based on in-depth interviews with six teachers in one urban school district. Gendered harassment includes any behaviour that polices and reinforces traditional heterosexual gender norms such as (hetero)sexual harassment, homophobic harassment, and harassment for gender non-conformity. This study shows that educators experience a combination of external and internal influences that act as either barriers or motivators for intervention. …

  8. Breaking a spell of silence: the Tasmanian evaluation of the 2006 Pride and Prejudice program

    An evaluation of the Pride & Prejudice program, which ran in three Tasmanian schools in 2006, suggests that students who completed the program had more positive attitudes towards gay men and lesbians. This finding parallels an earlier evaluation of the same anti-homophobia program undertaken in Victoria. The evaluation leads to a discussion about the deeper and often hidden purposes of schooling, and about the discursive formations of heteronormativity, which provide a heterosexist basis for ‘curriculum’. …

  9. Youth empowerment and high school Gay-Straight Alliances

    In the field of positive youth development programs, “empowerment” is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led organizations characterized by social justice goals: high school Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). …

  10. The impact of belonging to a High School Gay/Straight Alliance

    This qualitative investigation studies the impact of belonging to a high school Gay/Straight Alliance (GSA or Alliance) on the lives of seven students. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted over a two-year time period. The author used voices of gay, lesbian, bi-sexual and straight students to relate the experiences unique to each participant. In addition, data from media and spoken transcripts, video tapes of news reports, grade records, and the GSA advisor's personal observations were analyzed and organized into a framework of seven categories of impact. …

  11. Heterosexism in high school and victimization among lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning students

    This study examined relationships between perceived heterosexism in high school policies and programs, social environments, and victimization rates among lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning (LGBQ) students. Secondary analyses of Internet survey data from a large cohort of LGBQ students (N = 2037; 76% male, 82% White; mean age = 16.07; 56% gay or lesbian; 28% bisexual; 16% questioning) yielded moderate correlations between perceptions of non-discrimination and harassment policies, inclusive programs, and the prevalence and tolerance of anti-LGBQ harassment. …

  12. HIV prevalence among high school learners - opportunities for schools-based HIV testing programmes and sexual reproductive health services

    Young girls in sub Saharan Africa are reported to have higher rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to boys in the same age group. Knowledge of HIV status amongst high schools learners provides an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. This study aimed at determining the HIV prevalence and explored the feasibility of HIV testing among high school learners. Between September 2010 and February 2011, a linked, anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted in two public sector high schools in the rural KwaZulu-Natal midlands. …

  13. Effects of homophobic versus nonhomophobic victimization on school commitment and the moderating effect of teacher attitudes in Brazilian public schools

    This study investigated homophobic victimization, teacher support, and school commitment in Brazilian schools. Participants were 339 students, ages 11 to 18, in two public schools in Brazil. Data were obtained using the Brazil Preventing School Harassment Survey. Structural equation modeling revealed that both homophobic and nonhomophobic victimization were negatively related to school commitment but that homophobic victimization was a stronger predictor. Results supported the hypothesis that supportive teachers can moderate the relationship between victimization and school commitment. …

  14. I am the hate that dare not speak its name: dealing with homophobia in secondary schools

    This paper describes the outcomes of a small-scale project involving 19 secondary schools. The project investigated how effectively issues of homophobic bullying and sexualities were addressed through secondary schools' formal policies and areas of the curriculum. Outcomes indicate that sexual orientation was mentioned in two-thirds of Equal Opportunities policies but was not mentioned specifically in any Anti-Bullying policies. Staff highlighted the need for training in issues surrounding sexualities, homophobic bullying and clarification of Section 28. …

  15. The hidden work of caring: teachers and the maturing AIDS epidemic in diverse secondary schools in Durban

    In this article, authors argue that teachers are dealing with the consequences of HIV/AIDS in their schools and classrooms. By focusing on the pastoral care of teachers work with learners, authors explore the ways that teachers understand the care component of their school work, and describe what they actually do for learners who are either infected or affected by AIDS. Many teachers are in some or other way involved in care work, but the conditions of schools determine the nature and extent of the care work that teachers are called to deliver. …

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