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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Renewed commitments in a time of vigilance: sexuality education in the USA

    Over the past 20 years, the USA has seen more than its fair share of controversy with respect to education about sexuality, sex and intimate relationships. Attention has focused on content (abstinence-only vs. comprehensive instruction), delivery (by teachers, parents, health professionals or community educators) and context (within school and beyond). In recognition of this fact, Sex Education invited the development of a virtual special issue comprising a sample of its most impactful papers on these and related topics. …

  2. Guatemalan school food environment: impact on schoolchildren's risk of both undernutrition and overweight/obesity

    Guatemala suffers the double burden of malnutrition with high rates of stunting alongside increasing childhood overweight/obesity. This study examines the school food environment (SFE) at low-income Guatemalan elementary schools and discusses its potential impact on undernutrition and overweight/obesity. From July through October 2013, direct observations, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and food kiosk vendors (n = 4, 2 interviews each) and also focus groups (FGs) with children (n = 48, 8 FGs) were conducted. …

  3. Essential conditions for the implementation of comprehensive school health to achieve changes in school culture and improvements in health behaviours of students

    Background: Comprehensive School Health (CSH) is an internationally recognized framework that holistically addresses school health by transforming the school culture. It has been shown to be effective in enhancing health behaviours among students while also improving educational outcomes. Despite this effectiveness, there is a need to focus on how CSH is implemented. …

  4. School experiences of HIV-positive secondary school learners on ARV treatment in Namibia

    Although the provision of life-saving antiretroviral (ARV) treatment is central to the medical and policy response to the HIV pandemic, relatively little research in the SADC region and in Namibia particularly, attends to HIV-positive people's experiences and the social effects of taking ARV treatment, with children being least focused on. The study from which the paper is drawn contributes to this dearth by examining the experiences of HIV-positive high school learners on ARV treatment in Khomas Region, Namibia. …

  5. Engaging school personnel in making schools safe for girls in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to protect them. This study evaluates a program aimed at making schools safe for girl learners in order to reduce girls’ vulnerability to HIV in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. In addition to an extensive process evaluation with school personnel program participants, program facilitators, and community members, a cross-sectional post-intervention survey was conducted among adolescent girls in the three countries. The total sample size was 1249 adolescent girls (ages 11–18). …

  6. When caring is not enough: The limits of teachers’ support for South African primary school-girls in the context of sexual violence

    Between 2011 and 2012, 40.1% of all sexual offences in South Africa involved children under 18. Important scholarship has demonstrated how large-scale social and economic inequalities structure African girls’ risk to and experience of sexual violence leading to a condemnation of violent masculinities and the social processes that produce it. Under conditions of chronic poverty and unstable living conditions, girls’ vulnerability to sexual violence is increased. …

  7. A case study of school support and the psychological, emotional and behavioural consequences of HIV and AIDS on adolescents

    Various studies have reported a huge increase in the numbers of orphaned adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effects on their psychological, emotional and behavioural development. Yet, their needs are seldom recognised or adequately addressed in policy and programmes.This article uses a qualitative study to report the experiences of 11 orphaned adolescents (5 boys and 6 girls aged between 15 and 18 years) affected by HIV and AIDS in a secondary school (in Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa) and the school support provided by them. …

  8. Emerging issues in school bullying research and prevention science

    Titles from this issue: Associations between peer victimization and academic performance; The biological underpinnings of peer victimization: understanding why and how the effects of bullying can last a lifetime; Cyberbullying: what does research tell us?; Teacher–student agreement on “bullies and kids they pick on” in elementary school classrooms: gender and grade differences; Understanding homophobic behavior and its implications for policy and practice; The influence of psychosocial factors on bullying involvement of students with disabilities; The role of social-emotional learning in bully …

  9. Substance abuse among public secondary school students: prevalence, strategies and challenges for public secondary school managers in Kenya: a case study of Kisumu East sub county

    Substance abuse among public secondary school students is reality that is spreading at an alarming rate. If not checked, it could destroy the youth who are in their formative stage in life. Its outcomes include school dropouts, injuries, loss of lives, destruction of properties, moral decadence, misallocation of resources, indiscipline and compromised academic standards. According to the findings of a study conducted in 2005 on substance abuse in five major cities in Kenya, Kisumu and Nakuru lead the rest of the major cities and towns in the country in the prevalence of substance abuse. …

  10. Gender violence in schools in the developing world

    This paper explores gender violence in schools in what is commonly known as the ‘developing world’ through a review of recent research written in English. Violence in the school setting has only recently emerged as a widespread and serious phenomenon in these countries, with the consequence that our knowledge and understanding of it is embryonic; much of it remains invisible or unrecognized. …

  11. How students’ perceptions of the school climate influence their choice to upstand, bystand, or Join perpetrators of bullying

    The authors of this article, Silvia Diazgranados Ferráns and Robert Selman, use an emergent framework to explore how the rules of the school culture at different perceived school climates affect early adolescents’ decisions to upstand, bystand, or join the perpetrators when they witness peer aggression and bullying. Through a grounded theory approach, they revisit interview data from twenty-three eighth graders in four middle schools, with the aim of building on previous research and refining their theoretical framework to guide future research on bullying. …

  12. The effect of negative school climate on academic outcomes for LGBT youth and the role of in-school supports

    For many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, intolerance and prejudice make school a hostile and dangerous place. This study examined simultaneously the effects of a negative school climate on achievement and the role that school-based supports—safe school policies, supportive school personnel, and gay–straight alliance (GSA) clubs—may have in offsetting these effects. Data were drawn from a survey of a diverse sample of 5,730 LGBT youths who had attended secondary schools in the United States. …

  13. Skool’s out

    The Skool's Out initiative was aimed at encouraging effective responses to homophobic harassment and violence in and around schools, both public and private, in New South Wales, Australia. The focus was on safety and security in the school environment for all students, teachers, parents and community members. It was held as part of the 2002 Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras and comprised three events: a public Forum, an entry in the Parade and a stall for the Mardi Gras Fair Day. A report and an information card were also produced. …

  14. HIV prevention through extended education encompassing students, parents, and teachers in Japan

    The article developed an extended HIV prevention program for students, parents, and school teachers, and then evaluated its effectiveness. The findings suggest that effective prevention of HIV might be achieved by an expanded education program for students and teachers such as that described, and individual counseling that takes into consideration the sexual differences of Japanese adolescents.

  15. The provision of a health promoting environment for HIV/AIDS education: the case of Namibian senior secondary schools

    HIV/AIDS programmes in schools ultimately intend to decrease high risk sexual behaviour. One factor facilitating this outcome is a strong health promoting environment in the school. This paper reports a study surveying the health promoting environments supporting HIV/AIDS education in Namibian senior secondary schools. It develops a two dimensional model for classifying the strength of a school’s health promoting environment. The findings show that schools have different strengths of health promoting environments linked more to their size than to a rural or urban location. …

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