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Stigma has been identified as a complex, diverse and deeply rooted phenomenon that is dynamic in different cultural settings. As a collective social process rather than a mere reflection of an individual's subjective behaviour, it operates by producing and reproducing social structures of power, hierarchy, class and exclusion and by transforming difference (class, race, ethnicity, health status, sexual orientation and gender) into inequality. This document is a literature review about stigma in every sense of the word.
This discussion series is produced by the Health, Nutrition, and Population Family (HNP) of the World Bank's Human Development Network. The series provides a vehicle for publishing preliminary and unpolished result of HNP topics to encourage discussion and debate. This review finds evidence that the effect of many investments on youth differ significantly by income and gender and also by counry context.