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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Discussion paper: Cash transfers and HIV prevention

    This discussion paper synthesizes the evidence for the effectiveness of cash transfers for HIV prevention and explores implications and opportunities for advancing research and policy agendas. Much of this evidence centres on girls and young women, who bear significant HIV burdens, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, and often have less control over their sexual choices than do men. Many forms of transfers exist that may contribute to HIV prevention. …

  2. The government of Kenya cash transfer for orphaned and vulnerable children: cross-sectional comparison of household and individual characteristics of those with and without

    Background: The ‘Cash Transfer to Orphans and Vulnerable Children’ (CT-OVC) in Kenya is a government-supported program intended to provide regular and predictable cash transfers (CT) to poor households taking care of OVC. CT programs can be an effective means of alleviating poverty and facilitating the attainment of an adequate standard of living for people’s health and well-being and other international human rights. …

  3. The Government of Kenya’s Cash Transfer Program Reduces the Risk of Sexual Debut among Young People Age 15-25

    The aim of this study is to assess whether the Government of Kenya’s Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (Kenya CT-OVC) can reduce the risk of HIV among young people by postponing sexual debut. The program provides an unconditional transfer of US$20 per month directly to the main caregiver in the household. An evaluation of the program was implemented in 2007–2009 in seven districts. Fourteen Locations were randomly assigned to receive the program and fourteen were assigned to a control arm. A sample of households was enrolled in the evaluation in 2007. …

  4. The Impact of a Comprehensive Microfinance Intervention on Depression Levels of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Uganda

    The relationship between poverty and mental health functioning is well documented. Poverty affects not only families’ ability to physically care for children, but also families’ stability, functioning, and psychosocial well-being. In this article, we examine the impact of a comprehensive microfinance intervention, intended to reduce the risk of poverty, on depression among adolescent youth who have lost either one or both parents to AIDS.A child who has been affected by AIDS is more likely to have increased levels of anxiety, depression, and reduced self-esteem. …

  5. Report on supporting care providers to improve lives of children orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS

    This report presents the findings of a study on how communities lead the response to orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) in different regions of Malawi - focusing on the districts of Kasungu and Lilongwe in the central region, Mulanje in the south, and Mzimba in the north. These are districts where Plan Malawi implements OVC care and support interventions. The overall goal of the study was to determine the effectiveness of support being provided by care givers to the well being of OVC made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS. …

  6. Community interventions supporting children affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a review to derive evidence-based principles for programming

    Approaching 20 years after the first studies drew attention to the issues faced by children and families affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), evaluation data from programs addressing their circumstances remains limited and clustered, especially when considered in relation to the magnitude of donor spending. A review of evaluation evidence was conducted to derive programming principles for interventions supporting HIV-affected children in sub-Saharan Africa, including care and support, cash transfer and HIV-prevention interventions. …

  7. Kenya's cash transfer program: protecting the health and human rights of orphans and vulnerable children

    In Kenya, as in other countries of sub-Saharan Africa heavily burdened by HIV/ AIDS, orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) face poverty and despair. There is an urgent need to provide a comprehensive response that supports families and communities in their efforts to care for children and safeguard their rights. The government of Kenya has established a cash transfer program that delivers financial and social support directly to the poorest households containing OVC, with special concern for those children with or affected by HIV/AIDS. …

  8. Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) programming in Global Fund HIV/AIDS grants in Kenya

    The USAID Health Policy Initiative, Task Order 1, conducted a comprehensive desk review to better understand the nature and extent of OVC in Global Fund HIV/AIDS grants and the processes involved. The project then supported a study in Kenya to explore the country situation influencing these processes. Information for the activity came from a review of proposal and grant-related documents available through the Global Fund website and interviews with key informants in Kenya. Kenya was chosen due to its high HIV prevalence rate, OVC burden, and a succession of proposals and grants over time. …

  9. Review of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in HIV/AIDS grants awarded by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Rounds 1-7)

    The USAID Health Policy Initiative, Task Order 1, conducted this comprehensive desk review, followed by a pilot country study (Pfleiderer and O. Kantai, 2010), to better understand the extent of OVC inclusion in GFATM processes. The desk review that resulted in this report reviewed documents for 261 HIV grants retrieved from the grant database on the Global Fund's web site. It did not include other kinds of Global Fund grants, including health systems strengthening (HSS) grants. …

  10. Innovations in education: the role of the education sector in combating HIV/AIDS

    From 2002-2005 Africare implemented the Community Based Care, Protection and Empowerment (COPE) for Children Affected by AIDS (CABA) project in Mutasa District of Zimbabwe. The goal of the project was to encourage shared responsibility for orphans and vulnerable children by increasing community capacity to respond to the needs of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). …

  11. A costing analysis of selected orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) programs in Botswana

    The number of children under the age of 18 in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) who have lost one or both parents to AIDS has increased dramatically in the last five years. The number of children orphaned by AIDS in SSA is estimated to be around 12 million (UNICEF, 2006). Many more children live with one or more chronically ill or dying parents and or live in poverty stricken and food insecure households. …

  12. Cash transfers: real benefits for children affected by HIV and AIDS

    For children affected by HIV and AIDS, the risks of poverty and loss of livelihood are compounded by the risk of losing family care - their first line of protection. While cash transfers alone are not the solution, they can be an important element of an overall care package for children. Social protection measures - including social transfers (cash, in-kind [food] or vouchers), family support services, and alternative care - can help mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS by reducing poverty and family separation. …

  13. Circles of support for orphans and vulnerable children: a community and schools-based multi-sectoral approach to meeting their needs

    The project "Circles of support for orphans and vulnerable children: a community and schools-based multi-sectoral approach to meeting their needs" was aimed at testing a model to improve the identification of OVC and comprehensively support them, using the school system as an entry point. The overall objective of the project was to define and test nationally appropriate models of supporting OVC by providing for their basic needs and psycho-social support to enable them to remain in, or re-enter, school and fulfill their development potential. …

  14. Government's social development response to children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS: Identifying gaps in policy and budgeting

    According to figures released by the Department of Health of South Africa in 2005, an estimated 6.29-6.57 million people were HIV positive in 2004. South Africa is home to approximately 17.7 million children. HIV/AIDS produces and compounds different forms of vulnerability among children. First, children are being made directly vulnerable by infection (mostly caused by mother to child transmission) and related ill-health. The number and proportion of infections due to child abuse is increasing. Secondly, HIV/AIDS is causing vulnerability among children by leaving them orphaned. …

  15. Declaration of commitment on HIV/AIDS and political declaration on HIV/AIDS: midway to the Millennium Development Goals. Report of the Secretary-General

    The present report reviews progress in implementing the 2001 Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS and the 2006 Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS. Its findings are based primarily on the reports of 147 member states on national progress in the response to HIV, which together represent the most comprehensive body of evidence ever assembled regarding the response to HIV in low-, middle- and high-income countries. After having presented the key findings, this report explains the key recommandations.

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