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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. An HIV/AIDS knowledge scale for adolescents: item response theory analyses based on data from a study in South Africa and Tanzania

    A 14-item human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge scale was used among school students in 80 schools in 3 sites in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). For each item, an incorrect or don't know response was coded as 0 and correct response as 1. Exploratory factor analyses based on polychoric correlations showed two separate factors for all sites. …

  2. HIV prevention for South African youth: which interventions work? A systematic review of current evidence

    South Africa's HIV prevalence among 15-24 year olds is one of the highest in the world. This systematic review looks at the evidence for youth HIV prevention in the country since 2000 and critically assesses interventions across four domains: study design and outcomes; intervention design; thematic focus and HIV causal pathways; and intervention delivery. Eight interventions were included in the review, all similar regarding content and objectives, but with variouis thematic foci, causal pathways, theoretical bases, delivery methods, intensity and duration. …

  3. Adolescents' reports of reproductive health education, 1988 and 1995

    This study used formal reproductive health education and communication with parents on reproductive health among 15-19 year old males from the National Survey of Adolescent Males (1988 and 1995). Female adolescent reports were taken from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. During this period, reproductive health education became almost universal among adolescent males. The percentage of males receiving information on HIV and AIDS rose from 73% to 97% and percentage receiving instruction on saying no to sex rose from 58% to 75%. Those who dropped out of school received less education. …

  4. Influence of educational status and other variables on human immunodeficiency virus risk perception among military personnel: a large cohort finding

    HIV risk perception is a determinant of HIV transmission. This prospective cohort followed 2,213 Nigerian military personnel to assess the association between higher educational attainment and increased HIV risk perception. Multivariable regression revealed that there was an inverse correlation between increasing educational level and HIV risk perception (POR, 0.70, 95% CI=0.56-0.88). There was also a correlation between alcohol and marijuana use and HIV risk perception (p 0.05). There waws no association between casual sex and gender and HIV risk perception. …

  5. Gender Inequalities in primary Schooling: The roles of poverty and adverse cultural practice

    This paper suggests a simple model for the relationships between poverty, schooling and gender inequality. It argues that poverty at both national and household levels is associated with an under-enrolment of school age children, but that the gendered outcomes of such under enrolment are the product of cultural practice, rather than poverty per se. Using detailed case study material from two African countries, evidence is presented to show the variety and extent of adverse cultural practice which impede the attendance and performance of girls at school, relative to boys. …

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