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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Kenya: Healthy Outcomes through Prevention Education (HOPE). Final evaluation

    In Kenya, high poverty, insecurity, poor health outcomes, substance abuse and low levels of education make young people, especially girls, vulnerable to a variety of risks such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and Diseases (STDs), and Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV). …

  2. Engaging school personnel in making schools safe for girls in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to protect them. This study evaluates a program aimed at making schools safe for girl learners in order to reduce girls’ vulnerability to HIV in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. In addition to an extensive process evaluation with school personnel program participants, program facilitators, and community members, a cross-sectional post-intervention survey was conducted among adolescent girls in the three countries. The total sample size was 1249 adolescent girls (ages 11–18). …

  3. Learning about HIV/AIDS in schools: does a gender-equality approach make a difference?

    Is HIV education based on the principles of gender equality possible in practice? If so, can it make a difference to gender relations in a society? This chapter considers these questions through reflection on two gender-based HIV education interventions in South Africa and Mozambique, which took place between 2001 and 2003.

  4. Talk what others think you can’t talk: HIV/AIDS clubs as peer education in Ugandan schools

    In this article, we make the case that HIV/AIDS clubs in Ugandan schools provide valuable information to students who may not have easy access to health services. As one club motto suggests, the clubs ‘talk what others think you can’t talk’. The innovative peer education methods, which include drama, popular culture and community outreach all have great appeal to youth, and provide unique opportunities for female students to raise gender issues and develop leadership skills. …

  5. Postgraduate educational research on violence, gender, and HIV/AIDS in and around schools (1995-2004)

    Social issues such as HIV/AIDS, bullying, and violence have recently come to the fore in schooling and related research in South Africa. This article describes and critically analyses Masters and Ph.D. research done in education in the period 1995–2004, with particular reference to the voice given to social issues, namely: gender, violence, and HIV/AIDS and their interconnectedness. It explores issues, trends, and patterns in research emerging in the first decade of democracy in South Africa.

  6. An HIV/AIDS knowledge scale for adolescents: item response theory analyses based on data from a study in South Africa and Tanzania

    A 14-item human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge scale was used among school students in 80 schools in 3 sites in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). For each item, an incorrect or don't know response was coded as 0 and correct response as 1. Exploratory factor analyses based on polychoric correlations showed two separate factors for all sites. …

  7. Combat for gender equality in education: rural livelihood pathways in the context of HIV/AIDS

    This book, which was originally written as a dissertation, broadens the approach to gender equality in primary education by exploring the magnitude of complex interactions between schools and rural livelihood household processes in the context of HIV/AIDS. The arguments are based on recent ethnographic research using dimensions of rural pupils', parents', and teachers' responses to the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS on their livelihoods. It gives insight into some of the current debates that have been generated in the field of education, HIV/AIDS and rural livelihoods.

  8. Reducing HIV Infection in Young Women in Southern Africa: The Key to Altering Epidemic Trajectories in a Generalized, Hyperendemic Setting

    This paper gives an overview of the HIV prevention battle in Southern Africa and supports the development of more balanced and innovative HIV prevention portfolio that adresses the real, immediate, and substantial risk facing young women from sub-Saharan African countries.

  9. FRESH Tools for Effective School Health

    This document is intended to help individuals advocate for and implement HIV/AIDS/STI prevention through schools. Clearly showing that HIV prevention programmes are effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among young people, it puts forward strong arguments for addressing HIV/AIDS/STI prevention through schools and why schools must accept the responsibility to educate their community members and work with them to determine the most appropriate and effective ways to prevent HIV infection among young people. …

  10. Opening our eyes: addressing gender violence in South African schools: a module for educators

    This document supports eight workshops addressing gender-based violence in South African schools and how it is related to HIV and AIDS. It can be used at secondary school level and was developed specifically as a professional development tool to be used at school or district level with teachers, school management teams and school governing bodies in order to tackle gender based violence, which includes rape, sexual harassment and homophobia. This document could be useful for NGO's, educators and other organizations who are working with youth. …

  11. Working-age adult mortality and primary school attendance in rural Kenya

    The rapid increase in adult mortality due to the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa raises great concern about potential intergenerational effects on children. This article estimates the impact of AIDS-related adult mortality on primary school attendance in rural Kenya using a panel of 1,266 households surveyed in 1997, 2000, and 2002. The paper distinguishes between effects on boys' and girls' education to understand potential gender differences resulting from adult mortality. We also estimate how adult mortality affects child schooling before as well as after the death occurs. …

  12. The construction of gender in times of change: a case study of school-based HIV/AIDS education in Kilimanjaro

    This case study utilized qualitative and quantitative methods to examine how gender, power and HIV/AIDS merge to create situations of risk and vulnerability for young people in the Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. Questionnaires were collected from 160 secondary school students, while qualitative data came from 3 focus group discussions (one mixed and two single sex), interviews with one male and one female parent, one male and one female teacher, and an educational representative, in addition to observation. …

  13. Reaching the Poor: The 'cost' of sending children to school: a six country comparative study

    This comparative research study focuses on the main barriers to education for the poorest households in Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia. Although the study set out primarily to look at the burden of education costs on the poorest households very rich data on other barriers to education (e.g. physical access, quality of education, vulnerability, poverty, and health) have been gathered and are discussed. The study looks at what motivates parents to send their children to school (and keep them there) through their perceptions of the quality and value of education. …

  14. HIV/AIDS and sex education among the youth in Zambia: towards behavioural change

    This article addresses how sex education in Zambia has changed over the course of time, particularly due to the spread of HIV/AIDS. The article is based on fieldwork conducted by the author in Zambia during six periodsbetween 1992 and 2003, and additional literature on HIV/AIDS education. The research conducted by the author between 1992 and 2001 focused primarily on female initiation rites, while that of 2002-2003 focused on the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Zambian youth and how the knowledge is passed on by teachers at primary schools, but also by health workers, peer educators, and parents. …

  15. HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence: who has the power? A challenge for school management in South African schools

    The crucial distinction between power and force in relation to aggressive masculinity needs to be analysed and understood if preventative intervention is to be successful in the fight against HIV/AIDS. This aggressive masculinity undermines the concepts of negotiation and communication emphasized within most prevention programmes. Two related interventions developed by the Canada South Africa Education Management Programme are also described in the paper.

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