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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. We want to learn about good love: findings from a qualitative study assessing the links between comprehensive sexuality education and violence against women and girls

    Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) – including learning about relationships, gender and gender-based violence (GBV), sex, sexuality, and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) – can empower young people to make informed, autonomous decisions regarding their current and future relationships. CSE may also influence a positive shift in social norms which underpin violence against women and girls (VAWG), such as harmful notions of masculinity, and rigid gender roles and stereotypes – both in schools and the wider community. …

  2. Because I am a girl: The state of the world's girls 2014. Pathways to power: Creating sustainable change for adolescent girls

    This is the eighth in the annual ‘Because I am a Girl’ report series, published by Plan, which assesses the current state of the world’s girls. While women and children are recognised in policy and planning, girls’ needs and rights are often ignored. The reports provide evidence, including the voices of girls themselves, as to why they need to be treated differently from boys and adult women. They also use information from primary research, in particular a small study set up in 2006 following 142 girls from nine countries. …

  3. Gender based violence in South African schools

    This paper looks at issues of gender-based violence in the education sector in South Africa through a review of literature and statistics of recent research by international organizations.

  4. Boys are more vulnerable than girls to school-related gender-based violence: results from a survey in Zambia

    In Zambia, 47% percent of women aged 15-49 have ever experienced physical violence & 15% experienced sexual and/or gender-based violence (DHS 2007). School-related gender-based violence (SRGBV) is a global problem with serious implications for individual and population health and education outcomes. SRGBV results in sexual, physical, or psychological harm to girls and boys. SRGBV may include any form of violence or abuse based on gendered stereotypes or that targets students on the basis of their sex. …

  5. Victimes de l'école : les violences de genre en milieu scolaire, obstacles au droit des filles et des garçons à l’éducation

    Deuxième volet d’une série consacrée aux principaux freins à l’éducation des filles, ce rapport met en lumière les multiples défis à relever et dévoile différentes méthodes d’intervention utilisées par Plan International et ses partenaires pour lutter contre les violences de genre en milieu scolaire. Fondées sur les études et programmes réalisés par Plan International et ses partenaires, des recommandations sont illustrées par des cas concrets puisés dans différents pays d’intervention, en particulier dans la sous-région d’Afrique de l’Ouest et en Asie. …

  6. Addressing the intergenerational transmission of gender-based violence: Focus on educational settings

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is increasingly recognized as a hindrance to economic and social development, in addition to violating the human rights of those experiencing it. Therefore, preventing the perpetration of GBV has ramifications beyond simply ending violence. Gender-based violence is violence perpetrated based on a person’s gender, and reflective of gender inequalities. Patriarchal social norms exist to varying degrees in almost every part of the world, often placing men and boys in dominant positions over women and girls. …

  7. Strengthening the enabling environment for women and girls: what is the evidence in social and structural approaches in the HIV response?

    There is growing interest in expanding public health approaches that address social and structural drivers that affect the environment in which behaviour occurs. Half of those living with HIV infection are women. The sociocultural and political environment in which women live can enable or inhibit their ability to protect themselves from acquiring HIV. …

  8. Preventing sexual violence and HIV in children

    BACKGROUND: Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. …

  9. Gender-based violence at school in French-speaking sub-Saharan Africa: Understanding its impact on girls' attendance to combat it more effectively

    This report on school-related gender-based violence and its impact on girls’ school attendance in French-speaking sub-Saharan Africa is the result of a year’s collective investigation by non-governmental organisations from the South and North, United Nations agencies and education ministries with a two-fold objective: to make the phenomenon of school-related gender-based violence visible and analyse its causes; to make recommendations to policymakers and development cooperation stakeholders for including gender-based violence in their education policies. …

  10. If I buy the Kellogg’s then he should [buy] the milk: young women’s perspectives on relationship dynamics, gender power and HIV risk in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women's decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. The authors conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24-year-old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women's expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power and how this influences HIV risk. …

  11. Women hold up half the sky - and half the burden of the HIV epidemic

    The HIV burden on women is dramatically higher in some regions, certain age groups and among marginalized groups, such as female sex workers. Women’s vulnerability to HIV is exacerbated by gender inequality and domestic violence. The global effort towards elimination of paediatric HIV and keeping mothers alive deserves applause. However, the needs of women go beyond their child-bearing age or potentials and/or reproductive desires and must be recognized in the global HIV agenda. In particular, more female-controlled prevention tools are urgently required to allow women to protect themselves.

  12. The importance of addressing gender inequality in efforts to end vertical transmission of HIV

    The recently launched ‘‘Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive’’ sets forth ambitious targets that will require more widespread implementation of comprehensive prevention of vertical HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes. As PMTCT policymakers and implementers work toward these new goals, increased attention must be paid to the role that gender inequality plays in limiting PMTCT programmatic progress. …

  13. Sexuality and the limits of agency among South African teenage women: theorising femininities and their connections to HIV risk practices

    In South Africa, both HIV and gender-based violence are highly prevalent. Gender inequalities give men considerable relational power over young women, particularly in circumstances of poverty and where sex is materially rewarded. Young women are often described as victims of men, but this inadequately explains women's observed sexual agency. This paper takes a different approach. The authors use qualitative interviews and ethnographic observation among 16 young women from the rural Eastern Cape to explore ways young women construct their femininities and exercise agency. …

  14. Because I am a Girl. So, what about boys? The State of the World's Girls 2011

    Because I am Girl is an annual report published by Plan which assesses the current state of the world's girls. While women and children are recognised as specific categories in policy and planning, girls' particular needs and rights are often ignored. These reports provide evidence, including the voices of girls themselves, as to why they need to be treated differently from boys and from older women. The reports also make recommendations for action, showing policymakers and planners what can make a real difference to girls' lives all over the world.

  15. HIV and violence against women in Belize

    The overall objective of this study was to explore the potential intersections between two forms of violence against women (VAW) - partner violence and non-partner violence - among users of VAW and HIV services and to document their experiences, knowledge and perceptions on HIV and violence. The information was collected using a standardized questionnaire in each participant country in order to collect and compare data in a multi-country analysis. In Belize seventy-four (74) women were interviewed, 32 users of HIV services and 42 users of VAW services countrywide during 2007. …

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