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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Pupil absenteeism, measurement, and menstruation: Evidence from Kenya

    Impact evaluations focused on school absenteeism commonly use school records of untested quality or expensive spot-check data. We use a large dataset on more than 30,000 unannounced random spot-checks for 6,000 female and male students across 30 schools in Western Kenya, with equivalent school record entries. First, we confirm that while absenteeism is common overall, pubescent girls miss more schooldays than boys because of high incidence of school transfers. …

  2. WASH in schools empowers girls’ education: Proceedings of the 5th Annual Virtual Conference on Menstrual Hygiene Management in Schools

    Capturing girls’ voices: Channelling girls’ recommendations into global and national level action. Globally, there are around 600 million adolescent girls. Adolescence is a pivotal transitional period that requires special attention to ensure progress for all girls, especially the most vulnerable, and poses a unique opportunity to break intergenerational cycles of poverty and to transform gender roles. The onset of puberty and menstruation can pose an additional barrier to a girl’s personal freedom, and can signal entry into a different role in their family and wider society. …

  3. Kenya: helping adolescent mothers remain in school through strengthened implementation of school re-entry policies

    The goal of this case study is to document an activity of the STEP UP research programme consortium which resulted in successful evidence utilization. This is to both demonstrate the positive impact STEP UP is having on family planning and reproductive health policies, as well as to document the process by which this was achieved so as to inform future research of successful strategies and lessons learned. …

  4. To flush or not to flush: Monitoring and evaluating the primary school sanitary facilities against Ministries' benchmark standards in Southern and Eastern African countries

    Sustainable access to basic sanitation in school is well featured in the Education for All (EFA) goals and Millennium Development Goal (MDG). The United Nations General Assembly of 2010 declared access to sanitation as a human right (United Nations, 2010) in association with the MDG #7, with a particular target to “halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation” by 2015

  5. Expanding access to secondary school education for teenage mothers in Kenya: a baseline study report

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) foster an understanding of the current situation and context in regard to out-of-school teenage mothers and their potential support systems for school re-entry at the household and school levels in Homa Bay County, 2) clarify possible solutions for promoting school re-entry on the part of out-of-school girls, their families, and the education sector, and 3) provide a benchmark against which changes resulting from an intervention to promote school re-entry may be measured by the endline period.

  6. Education sector response to early and unintended pregnancy: a policy dialogue in Homa Bay County, Kenya

    In collaboration with the Strengthening Evidence for Programming on Unintended Pregnancy (STEP UP) Research Programme Consortium, the Population Council has implemented a project since 2014 to increase the demand for secondary school education in Homa Bay County, Kenya – an area characterized by high, unintended teenage pregnancy and female school drop-out rates.

  7. Education sector response to early and unintended pregnancy: a review of country experiences in sub-Saharan Africa

    In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), early and unintended pregnancy leads to a colossal loss of educational opportunities for girls: A high proportion of pregnancies among adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in the region are unintended, and nearly all adolescent girls who have ever been pregnant are out of school in most SSA countries. Existing studies that show associations between early/unintended pregnancy and school dropout lead to critical questions about how the education sector is responding to the issue in SSA. …

  8. Addressing cross-generational sex: A desk review of research and programs

    Current interest in cross-generational sex is largely due to the feminization of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Young women 15-24 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa are three times more likely to be infected with HIV than young men of the same age, four times more likely in Zambia, and a staggering five times more likely in Zimbabwe. But, in fact, ministries of education and others have had curricula and materials addressing the “sugar daddy” phenomenon for many years. …

  9. Teenage, married and out of school. Effects of early marriage and childbirth on school dropout

    In this paper, we tackle the question of causality between early marriage and school dropout, using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from nine Southern and Eastern African countries. By comparing school participation patterns of girls who were married before or during the school year in question to those were never married, we are able to establish a sequence of events and therefore, a more solid foundation for treating marriage as a cause of school dropout. In short, the first research question for this paper is as follows: Research Question 1. …

  10. We keep it secret so no one should know - A qualitative study to explore young schoolgirls attitudes and experiences with menstruation in rural western Kenya

    Background: Keeping girls in school offers them protection against early marriage, teen pregnancy, and sexual harms, and enhances social and economic equity. Studies report menstruation exacerbates school-drop out and poor attendance, although evidence is sparse. This study qualitatively examines the menstrual experiences of young adolescent schoolgirls. Methods and Findings: The study was conducted in Siaya County in rural western Kenya. A sample of 120 girls aged 14–16 years took part in 11 focus group discussions, which were analysed thematically. …

  11. WASH in schools empowers girls' education. Proceedings of the menstrual hygiene mananagement in schools virtual conference 2013

    There is increasing interest in exploring and addressing the menstrual hygiene management (MHM) barriers facing schoolgirls and female teachers in educational settings. Around the globe, WASH in Schools (WinS) focuses on fostering social inclusion and individual self-respect – and addresses MHM as a key agenda. By offering an alternative to the stigma and marginalization associated with hygiene issues, integrating MHM into WinS empowers all students, and especially encourages girls and female teachers. …

  12. Stop violence against girls in school: a cross country analysis of baseline research from Ghana, Kenya and Mozambique

    This report presents findings from baseline studies carried out in three districts in Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique for Stop Violence Against Girls in School, a five year project (2008­-2013) led by ActionAid with support from the UK’s Big Lottery Fund. …

  13. Research dossier: HIV prevention for girls and young women in Kenya

    This Research Dossier supports the Report Card on HIV Prevention for Girls and Young Women in Kenya produced by the United Nations Global Coalition on Women and AIDS (GCWA). It documents the detailed research coordinated for the GCWA by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Program on AIDS (UNAIDS) and Young Positives. The Report Card provides an "at a glance" summary of the current status of HIV prevention strategies and services for girls and young women in Kenya. …

  14. Reproductive Health/HIV and AIDS in Kenya

    Since the year 2000, the German Development Service (DED) has increased its engagement to combat HIV and AIDS through supporting a multisectoral approach in the hardest hit countries in sub-Sahara Africa. 90% of the Kenyan population lack financial resources and local access to adequate Reproductive Health services. This report gives an overview of this situation and analyzes the impact of HIV and AIDS on the public and private sector.áá

  15. The voices of young Kenyans. Gender and sexual identities and HIV/AIDS in education

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on the gendered and sexual identities of boys and girls, the influence of these identities on their sexual behaviour, and the status of HIV/AIDS education and life skills materials in Kenya's primary schools. The information gathered will feed into AGEI programmes and HIV/AIDS projects in several sectors, particularly those concerned with improving and strengthening AIDS education in Kenyan schools. The study was conducted in two districts: Garissa in Kenya's remote North Eastern Province, and the capital city Nairobi. …

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