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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Go Teachers! Creating a safe and supportive environment for girls at school: A training manual for school personnel and teachers

    The Go Girls! Toolkit is designed to support a comprehensive program that aims to reduce girls’ vulnerability to HIV/AIDS by reaching out to communities, schools, parents, boys and young girls using participatory awareness raising, community action items, and skills building tools. The tools have been pilot tested in the three implementation countries – Malawi, Mozambique, and Botswana – and revised based on the feedback from the facilitators and participants in each of the three countries

  2. Attention to menstrual hygiene management in schools: An analysis of education policy documents in low- and middle-income countries

    Recent decades have seen a push for gender parity in education in low resource countries. Attention is shifting to how school environments hinder the achievement of gender equality. One effort, primarily led by the water, sanitation and hygiene sector, includes a focus on the needs of menstruating girls.

  3. Effect of a cash transfer programme for schooling on prevalence of HIV and herpes simplex type 2 in Malawi: a cluster randomised trial

    Lack of education and an economic dependence on men are often suggested as important risk factors for HIV infection in women. The authors assessed the efficacy of a cash transfer programme for schooling to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections in young women. Based on their findings the authors conclude that cash transfer programmes can reduce HIV and HSV-2 infections in adolescent schoolgirls in low-income settings. Structural interventions that do not directly target sexual behaviour change can be important components of HIV prevention strategies.

  4. To flush or not to flush: Monitoring and evaluating the primary school sanitary facilities against Ministries' benchmark standards in Southern and Eastern African countries

    Sustainable access to basic sanitation in school is well featured in the Education for All (EFA) goals and Millennium Development Goal (MDG). The United Nations General Assembly of 2010 declared access to sanitation as a human right (United Nations, 2010) in association with the MDG #7, with a particular target to “halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation” by 2015

  5. Engaging school personnel in making schools safe for girls in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to protect them. This study evaluates a program aimed at making schools safe for girl learners in order to reduce girls’ vulnerability to HIV in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. In addition to an extensive process evaluation with school personnel program participants, program facilitators, and community members, a cross-sectional post-intervention survey was conducted among adolescent girls in the three countries. The total sample size was 1249 adolescent girls (ages 11–18). …

  6. Education sector response to early and unintended pregnancy: a review of country experiences in sub-Saharan Africa

    In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), early and unintended pregnancy leads to a colossal loss of educational opportunities for girls: A high proportion of pregnancies among adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in the region are unintended, and nearly all adolescent girls who have ever been pregnant are out of school in most SSA countries. Existing studies that show associations between early/unintended pregnancy and school dropout lead to critical questions about how the education sector is responding to the issue in SSA. …

  7. Adolescent pregnancy and education trajectories in Malawi

    Education is a vital component of the preparation for adulthood, and is closely linked to transitions into marriage and parenting. Childbearing among adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa remains high, while primary school completion is far from universal. This paper uses longitudinal data from five rounds of the Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Study to investigate how becoming pregnant while attending school influences medium-term educational outcomes of young women. …

  8. Preventing child marriage in the Commonwealth: the role of education

    Preventing Child Marriage in the Commonwealth: the Role of Education is the latest in a series of reports written by the Royal Commonwealth Society and Plan UK as part of our collaboration to end child, early and forced marriage in the Commonwealth. This report draws on the substantial body of evidence linking improved education to a reduced prevalence of child marriage and seeks to answer the question: what can Commonwealth education stakeholders do to ensure that girls are able to access a safe, high quality education? …

  9. Ending school related gender violence in Nsanje district, Malawi: baseline study

    Concern Worldwide has initiated a project called Ending School Related Gender-Based Violence in Malawi to run from 2012 to 2015. The goal of the new program is that the right of girls to access quality primary education, free from all forms of violence and discrimination, be actively promoted by schools, communities and the State in Nsanje District. The expected outcomes of the program are: 1. A safe learning environment for girls is ensured in 17 primary schools in Nsanje; 2. …

  10. WASH in schools empowers girls’ education. Proceedings of the Menstrual Hygiene Management in Schools Virtual Conference 2012

    WASH in Schools (WinS) fosters social inclusion and individual self-respect. By offering an alternative to the stigma and marginalization associated with hygiene issues, it empowers all students – and especially encourages girls and female teachers. In recognition of the positive impact on girls’ school attendance and achievement, initiatives around the world are addressing adolescent girls’ menstrual hygiene management (MHM) needs through WinS programming. …

  11. Addressing cross-generational sex: A desk review of research and programs

    Current interest in cross-generational sex is largely due to the feminization of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Young women 15-24 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa are three times more likely to be infected with HIV than young men of the same age, four times more likely in Zambia, and a staggering five times more likely in Zimbabwe. But, in fact, ministries of education and others have had curricula and materials addressing the “sugar daddy” phenomenon for many years. …

  12. Menstruation and school absenteeism: Evidence from rural Malawi

    The provision of toilets and menstrual supplies appears to be a promising strategy to promote adolescent girls' school attendance and performance in less developed countries. In this article, we use the first round of the Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Survey (MSAS) to examine the individual- and school-level factors associated with menstruation-related school absenteeism. …

  13. Girls' schooling and the perceived threat of adolescent sexual activity in rural Malawi

    Despite its relative infrequency, pregnancy is perceived by parents in rural Malawi as a leading cause of school dropout among female students. This paper explores parents' beliefs about adolescent sexual activity and schoolgirl pregnancy and how these perceptions frame parents' aspirations and expectations about girls' schooling. In-depth interviews were collected in rural Malawi from 60 adults aged 25–50 who were the parent of at least one school-aged child. …

  14. The short-term impacts of a schooling conditional cash transfer program on the sexual behaviour of young women

    Recent evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer programs for schooling are effective in raising school enrollment and attendance. However, there is also reason to believe that such programs can affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. Zomba Cash Transfer Program is a randomized, ongoing conditional cash transfer intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. …

  15. Getting sensitive. Helping civil society groups gain funding for gender-sensitive HIV programmes. An Exploratory Project in Malawi and Uganda

    In sub-Saharan Africa, home to two-thirds of all people living with HIV, 60% are now women. In some regions, women account for increasing percentages of all infections, especially young women (aged 15 to 24), who are particularly vulnerable. In sub-Saharan Africa, their risk of HIV infection is three to five times higher than that of young men (UNAIDS, 2008). The Exploratory Project was a partnership of GTZ and two established NGOs in Malawi and Uganda. …

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