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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Adolescent schoolgirls’ experiences of menstrual cups and pads in rural western Kenya: a qualitative study

    Poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) among schoolgirls in low income countries affects girls' dignity, self-esteem, and schooling. Hygienic, effective, and sustainable menstrual products are required. A randomized controlled feasibility study was conducted among 14-16-year-old girls, in 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, to examine acceptability, use, and safety of menstrual cups or sanitary pads. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted to evaluate girls' perceptions and experiences six months after product introduction. …

  2. Menstrual hygiene management guideline

    This Guide supports organizations working on MHM to encourage all girls and women to adopt safer menstrual hygiene practices. It also demonstrates how to work with communities and implement concrete actions for effective menstrual management. The target audience for MHM encompasses behavior change communication audiences referred to as primary participant groups –all women and girls - secondary audiences such as relevant technical officials at all levels, and advocacy or tertiary audiences – political leaders.

  3. Choose a future! Issues and options for adolescent girls and boys in Nigeria

    Choose a Future! brings together ideas and activities to help adolescent girls and boys shape their own lives and create their own options. This manual is for facilitators working with girls and boys ages 10-19. Girls and boys are actively involved in creating their own solutions to situations they encounter at home, in school and at work with male and female peers.

  4. Parents’ and teachers’ views on sexual health education and screening for sexually transmitted infections among in-school adolescent girls in Kenya: a qualitative study

    Background: To successfully develop and implement school-based sexual health interventions for adolescent girls, such as screening for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, it is important to understand parents’ and teachers’ attitudes towards sexual health education and acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions. Methods: In this qualitative study, we approached parents and teachers from three high schools to participate in in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus-group discussions (FGDs). …

  5. Interventions for preventing unintended pregnancies among adolescents (Review)

    Background: Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in high-income countries, as well as middle and low-income countries. Numerous prevention strategies such as health education, skills-building and improving accessibility to contraceptives have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, there is uncertainty regarding the effects of these interventions, hence the need to review the evidence-base. …

  6. Assessment report of health literacy and behavior change practices among adolescent girls in Kibera

    This report presents the findings of a rapid assessment of ‘Health Literacy and Behavior Change Practiced among Adolescent Girls in Kibera’ Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

  7. Mapping the knowledge and understanding of menarche, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries

    This paper maps the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices surrounding menarche, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health among adolescent girls in low and middle income countries in order to inform the future design of relevant policies and programming. The study of over 80 journal articles from a number of low and middle income countries confirmed that: (1) Many adolescent girls start their periods uninformed and unprepared. (2) Mothers are the primary source of information, but they inform girls too-little and too-late and often communicate their own misconceptions. …

  8. Do menstrual hygiene management interventions improve education and psychosocial outcomes for women and girls in low and middle income countries? A systematic review

    Background: Unhygienic and ineffective menstrual hygiene management has been documented across low resource contexts and linked to negative consequences for women and girls. Objectives: To summarise and critically appraise evidence for the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions in improving women and girls’ education, work and psychosocial wellbeing in low and middle income countries. [...] Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to establish the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions, although current results are promising. …

  9. Menstruation and the cycle of poverty: a cluster quasi-randomised control trial of sanitary pad and puberty education provision in Uganda

    Background: Poor menstrual knowledge and access to sanitary products have been proposed as barriers to menstrual health and school attendance. In response, interventions targeting these needs have seen increasing implementation in public and private sectors. However, there has been limited assessment of their effectiveness. …

  10. Menstruation and education in Nepal

    This paper presents the results from a randomized evaluation that distributed menstrual cups (menstrual sanitary products) to adolescent girls in rural Nepal. Girls in the study were randomly allocated a menstrual cup for use during their monthly period and were followed for fifteen months to measure the effects of having modern sanitary products on schooling. While girls were 3 percentage points less likely to attend school on days of their period, the researchers find no significant effect of being allocated a menstrual cup on school attendance. …

  11. Menstrual hygiene management impacts girls’ school experience in the Bolivian Amazon

    The purpose of this study on menstrual hygiene management (MHM) in the Beni department of Bolivia was to better understand the challenges girls face due to menstruation; describe factors which influence girls’ experiences during menstruation; and present recommendations to create a supportive school environment for adolescent girls in Bolivia. This study complements the findings of the first MHM study undertaken in Cochabamba, Bolivia in 2012, by providing information specific to the Amazonian population of the eastern lowlands of Bolivia. …

  12. Assessment of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among high school girls in Western Ethiopia

    Background: The issue of menstrual hygiene is inadequately acknowledged and has not received proper attention. Use of sanitary pads and washing the genital area are essential practices to keep the menstrual hygiene. Unhygienic menstrual practices can affect the health of the girls and there is an increased vulnerability to reproductive tract infections and pelvic inflammatory diseases and other complications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among high school girls at Nekemte town, Oromia region, Western Ethiopia. …

  13. Menstrual hygiene matters: training guide for practitioners

    This training guide includes eight session plans, each with a facilitation guide, four handouts, two PowerPoint presentations and two short films. …

  14. Interventions for preventing unintended pregnancies among adolescents

    Interventions for preventing unintended pregnancy include any activity (health education or counselling only, health education plus skills-building, health education plus contraception education, contraception education and distribution, faith-based group or individual counselling designed to: increase adolescents' knowledge and attitudes relating to risk of unintended pregnancies; promote delay in initiation of sexual intercourse; encourage consistent use of birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancies. …

  15. Celebrating womanhood: How better menstrual hygiene management is the path to better health, dignity and business

    This report details the Celebrating Womanhood: Menstrual Hygiene Management event held in March 2013 to discuss menstruation, a subject which is even now taboo in the higest corridors of funding and decision-making.

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