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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Women and HIV. A spotlight on adolescent girls and young women

    Gender discrimination and gender-based violence fuel the HIV epidemic. Gender norms in many cultures combined with taboos about sexuality have a huge impact on the ability of adolescent girls and young women to protect their health and prevent HIV, seek health services and make their own informed decisions about their sexual and reproductive health and lives.

  2. Menstrual hygiene management: operational guidelines

    Adolescence and puberty is a time of intense physical and emotional change for young people between the ages of 10 and 17. Puberty marks a transition between childhood and adulthood that impacts adolescents’ physical, emotional, and social well-being. Evidence shows that during puberty, adolescents embrace and solidify the gender norms of their society. So the way girls and boys see themselves within their family, community and society can be drastically altered for the rest of their lives. …

  3. A survey on re-entry of pregnant girls in primary and secondary schools in Uganda: survey briefing

    The main objective of the Survey on Re-Entry of Pregnant Girls in Primary and Secondary Schools in Uganda (2011) is to collect evidence and articulate policy options to address the re-integration of pregnant girls and child mothers in school in Uganda. …

  4. Shamed and blamed: pregnant girls’ rights at risk in Sierra Leone

    The report makes a number of recommendations for action by the government to guarantee girls’ right to health, including access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, and in particular post rape services. It also calls for further action to eradicate violence against girls, to protect girls at risk, and enforce laws against perpetrators of sexual violence.

  5. Menstrual hygiene management (Waterlines: Journal issue)

    This issue of the journal Waterlines looks at experiences of menstrual hygiene management in schools in a number of countries.

  6. Developing an education sector response to early and unintended pregnancy

    This discussion paper was prepared by UNESCO for the global consultation on education sector responses to early and unintended pregnancy (EUP) held in Johannesburg in November 2014. The paper describes global and regional specificities of EUP, the causes behind it, and the implications for the education sector, highlighting the current status of the education sector response and examples of ongoing programs and initiatives aimed at preventing EUP through comprehensive sexuality education and ensuring the right to education for pregnant and parenting girls.

  7. De-stigmatizing teenage motherhood: towards achievement of universal basic education in Kenya

    Teenage motherhood is a situation in which a girl in teenage years, that is, 13-19 years is a mother or has a child. Globally, a third of teenage mothers live in India whereas the least affected country by teenage motherhood in the world is Japan. In Africa, it is estimated that approximately 5.5 million girls between 15-19 years are mothers .Of these 62% live in Sub Saharan Africa. In Kenya, 13,000 girls leave school every year due to teenage pregnancy. …

  8. Effectiveness of a comprehensive sexual and gender-based violence prevention project for in-school girls in Swaziland

    Swaziland is one of the sub-Saharan African countries affected by Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV) and HIV and AIDS, with women facing greater risk compared to men. In response to increasing reports of violence against women and children in the country, the Swaziland Action Group Against Abuse (SWAGAA) launched a Girls’ Empowerment Clubs (GEC) program in primary and secondary schools in order prevent SGBV cases. …

  9. WASH in schools empowers girls’ education in Masbate Province and Metro Manila, Philippines: An assessment of menstrual hygiene management in schools

    Emory University, UNICEF Philippines, Plan Philippines and Save the Children Philippines carried out a qualitative assessment of menstruation-related challenges girls face in school. Girls, boys, teachers and mothers at 10 schools in Masbate Province and the National Capital Region were interviewed for their opinions. This report highlights the challenges girls face in school during menses, describes the determinants of these challenges, and outlines the educational and health impacts of these challenges as voiced by the participants. …

  10. Teen mothers and schooling: lacunae and challenges

    While many girls who become mothers before completing schooling consider academic qualifications to be very important, they may not be able to succeed academically if the support they need to complete their studies is insufficient. Usually, instead of getting support, the teen mothers endure misunderstandings and pressure. The teen mothers may feel disempowered because they are ‘othered’ and consequently, they develop forms of resistance which in most cases may foster their failure as learners. …

  11. Strengthening the enabling environment for women and girls: what is the evidence in social and structural approaches in the HIV response?

    There is growing interest in expanding public health approaches that address social and structural drivers that affect the environment in which behaviour occurs. Half of those living with HIV infection are women. The sociocultural and political environment in which women live can enable or inhibit their ability to protect themselves from acquiring HIV. …

  12. A Survey on re-entry of pregnant girls in primary and secondary schools in Uganda

    This report contains results of the survey conducted to establish views of the various stakeholders on the question of re-entry of pregnant girls in schools. It outlines the existing status as seen by the various participants in the study - teachers, students and pupils, parents, CSO actors, community leaders and local government officials, MOES officials and MPs. …

  13. The girl with her period is the one to hang her head. Reflections on menstrual management among schoolgirls in rural Kenya

    Background. The onset of menstruation is a landmark event in the life of a young woman. Yet the complications and challenges that can accompany such an event have been understudied, specifically in resource-poor settings. As interventions aim to improve female attendance in schools, it is important to explore how menstruation is perceived and navigated by girls in the school setting. This research conveys rural Kenyan schoolgirls' perceptions and practices related to menstruation. Methods. Data were collected at six rural schools in the Nyanza Province of Western Kenya. …

  14. Celebrating womanhood: How better menstrual hygiene management is the path to better health, dignity and business

    This report details the Celebrating Womanhood: Menstrual Hygiene Management event held in March 2013 to discuss menstruation, a subject which is even now taboo in the higest corridors of funding and decision-making.

  15. School policy on learner pregnancy in Namibia: Background to reform

    This paper seeks to contribute to the discussion and acceptance of a new policy on learner pregnancy, by providing relevant background and comparative information.

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