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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Understanding adolescent girls' protection strategies against HIV: an exploratory study in urban Lusaka

    Being young and female are two central aspects of vulnerability to HIV which intersect in the lives of adolescent girls. Both before and within marriage, girls and young women are especially vulnerable to contracting HIV as a result of both their biological susceptibility as well as their relative powerlessness within sexual relationships, the primary means of transmission. Girls and young women are disproportionally infected and affected by HIV and AIDS. …

  2. A cash transfer program reduces HIV infections among adolescent girls

    A large randomized trial in Malawi shows that schoolgirls whose families received monthly cash transfers had a significantly lower HIV infection rate than the control group. The two-year experiment in Zomba, a district in southern Malawi, offered cash to households with schoolgirls aged 13-22 who had never been married. Some of the offers were conditional on regular school attendance, while others were unconditional. Eighteen months after the program began, the HIV prevalence among program beneficiaries was 60% lower than the control group (1.2% vs. 3.0%). …

  3. International, African and country legal obligations on women's equality in relation to sexual and reproductive health including HIV and AIDS

    The lack of universal access to women's reproductive health services has contributed to the collective failure to be on target to achieve the MDGs by 2015. This is part and parcel of the failure to secure Universal Access by 2010 and is a major factor in the high burden of HIV and AIDS on the African continent. …

  4. Political Breakthrough: Mobilizing Accelerated Action to End Violence Against Women and Girls by 2015

    While violence against women and girls (VAW/G) is a factor in all the MDGs, it is linked particularly closely with HIV/AIDS, as both a cause and a consequence of the pandemic. Like HIV/AIDS, violence against women and girls has complex roots, driven by socio-economic issues and gendered power dynamics. Similarly, both HIV/AIDS and VAW/G require a holistic response that cuts across sectors and stakeholders. This report assesses the programs and policies being implemented by the Global Fund, the U.S. …

  5. Aunties for sexual and reproductive health. How unwed young mothers become advocates, teachers and counsellors in Cameroon

    In Cameroon, a girl's Auntie used to be her most trusted confidante, teacher and counsellor on sexual matters. In 2001, GTZ launched the Aunties Programme which borrows from this tradition. Since then, the Programme has recruited more than 6000 unwed young mothers who got pregnant while still in their teens and has given them basic training in sexual and reproductive health. …

  6. The short-term impacts of a schooling conditional cash transfer program on the sexual behaviour of young women

    Recent evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer programs for schooling are effective in raising school enrollment and attendance. However, there is also reason to believe that such programs can affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. Zomba Cash Transfer Program is a randomized, ongoing conditional cash transfer intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. …

  7. Legal grounds: reproductive and sexual rights in African Commonwealth courts. Volume II

    Gender-based discrimination remains one of the greatest threats to women's health and lives worldwide, despite domestic, regional, and international human rights guarantees of equality, reproductive and sexual rights, and a range of other rights. Such guarantees remain empty promises if not recognized and reinforced by national courts. …

  8. A measure of commitment: women's sexual and reproductive health risk index for Sub-Saharan Africa

    In 2008 the number of African women who died from pregnancy and child birth was much higher than the number of casualties from all the major conflicts in Africa combined. Maternal mortality continues to be the major cause of death among women of reproductive age (15-49) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This report looks at the performance of sub Saharan African countries in meeting reproductive health targets in 47 countries and ranks them using a set of ten indicators in order of the highest to lowest risk. …

  9. Moving Beyond Gender as Usual

    Gender inequalities drive the HIV epidemic, increase the burdens of the disease on women and girls, and hinder the effectiveness of the fight against HIV and AIDS. In this analysis, CGD's HIV/AIDS Monitor argues that despite well-meaning global strategies and policies, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and the World Bank's Africa Multi-Country AIDS Program have not yet been able to turn them into systematic programming that addresses the needs of women and girls. …

  10. The challenge of youth

    Ce document fait partie d'une série de livret élaboré par l'UNESCO dans le cade du Projet Spécial UNESCO/DANIDA pour les femmes et les filles en Afrique. Ces livrets sont destinés aux femmes néo-alphabétisées et aux filles non scolarisées. Cependant, les messages contenus dans les histoires peuvent être utilisés comme matériels pédagogiques de lecture supplémentaire au sein du système formel pour les lecteurs des deux sexes. Les sujets des livrets, basés sur les évaluations des besoins, reflètent un large éventail de besoins et de conditions des femmes d'Afrique sub-saharienne. …

  11. Girls' Power Initiative Nigeria. Training manual. Level 2. Adolescent Sexuality, sexual and reproductive health and rights.

    This document is a training manual designed to help facilitator to provide sexuality education (human sexuality, sexual and reproductive health, rights and responsibilities). This training manual (level 2) was produced and revised by Girl's power initiative (GPI), a Nigerian NGO in 2003. …

  12. Addressing the vulnerability of young women and girls to stop the HIV epidemic in southern Africa

    The papers explore some of the factors that are driving the current epidemic in southern Africa. These include the practice of age disparate and intergenerational sex; biological vulnerability of young women; economic empowerment; education and gender-based violence. A final paper examines the complex interaction between environmental factors and individual choices, behaviours and community norms.

  13. Gender equality, HIV, and AIDS: a challenge for the education sector

    The book shows that while gender inequalities in society generally, and particularly within the education sector, are driving aspects of the HIV epidemic, educational settings can be empowering and bring about change. It examines different expectations of what HIV education programmes and education settings can do to transform unequal gender relations and protect young people against HIV and AIDS and contribute to care for those affected and infected. …

  14. Scaling up for zero tolerance: civil society leadership in eliminating violence against women and girls in Ghana, Rwanda, and South Africa

    Based on the Global AIDS Alliance's August 2006 report Zero Tolerance: Stop the Violence Against Women and Children, Stop HIV/AIDS, this report explores successes and challenges of scaling up comprehensive national programs to prevent, respond to, and mitigate the impacts of violence against women and girls (VAW/G) and violence against children (VAC). The countries selected for the study - Ghana, Rwanda, and South Africa - demonstrate concerted efforts to address the problem. …

  15. Zero tolerance: stop the violence against women and children, stop HIV/AIDS

    This document describes a framework for a comprehensive response to violence against women and children, including the resources that would be needed, political and financial, for full implementation. It suggests taking into account the following pillars: 1. Political commitment and resource mobilization, 2. Legal and judicial reform, 3. Health sector reform, 4. Education sector reform, 5. Community mobilization for zero tolerance, 6. Mass marketing for social change.

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