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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. 25 years after Cairo: accelerating Africa's promise; fast-tracking progress in achieving good sexual reproductive health and rights outcomes and achievement of Sustainable Development Goals

    This issue of the African Development Perspectives addresses sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in Africa, with the backdrop of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) Programme of Action (PoA), signed by 179 governments twenty-five years ago, in 1994, in Cairo, Egypt, and the Nairobi Summit in November 2019, where delegates will converge to reaffirm the commitments to accelerate the promises made at the 1994 Conference. …

  2. Integrating sexual and reproductive health in WASH

    For girls and women globally, access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) is critical for their sexual and reproductive health and for gender equality. Girls’ inability to manage their menstrual health, compromises their ability to complete their educations and navigate other aspects of their lives. Lack of access to clean water can have significant impacts on women’s and girls’ health, including their reproductive health, and contributes to maternal mortality and morbidity. …

  3. Early marriage and sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities of young women: a synthesis of recent evidence from developing countries

    Purpose of review: To review current evidence on the links between early marriage and health-related outcomes for young women and their children. Recent findings: Every third young woman in the developing countries excluding China continues to marry as a child, that is before age 18. Recent studies reiterate the adverse health consequences of early marriage among young women and their children even after a host of confounding factors are controlled. …

  4. From evidence to action: results from the 2013 baseline survey for the BALIKA project

    The objective of the “BALIKA: Bangladeshi Association for Life Skills, Income, and Knowledge for Adolescents” project is to generate programmatic evidence to delay marriage in Bangladesh. This report documents baseline data from a survey conducted in 96 villages in the districts of Khulna, Narail, and Satkhira on a range of related indicators on education, livelihoods, sexual and reproductive health, and social life. …

  5. #WhatWomenWant: a transformative framework for women, girls and gender equality in the context of HIV and sexual and reproductive health and rights

    The report is based on six months of consultations with adolescent girls and young women around the world. It calls for sustained investment in women-led partnerships and civil society in order to advance gender equality and meet the ambitious targets set in the Sustainable Development Goals.

  6. Adolescent-friendly contraceptive services: mainstreaming adolescent-friendly elements into existing contraceptive services

    This brief focuses on the elements of AFCS that are typically implemented within a service delivery setting. It describes how mainstreaming AFCS can address key challenges for contraceptive programs, discusses the existing evidence of adolescent-friendly elements, outlines key issues for planning and implementation, and identifies knowledge gaps.

  7. Adolescent women’s need for and use of sexual and reproductive health services in developing countries

    With this report, the authors aim to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the use of sexual and reproductive health services by adolescent women aged 15–19 in the developing world. Using reliable nationally representative surveys in 70 countries, the report presents 30 indicators that cover a wide range of topics related to the sexual and reproductive health of adolescent women. Chapter 2 outlines the methods and data sources used for this report. Chapter 3 focuses on marriage, sexual activity and contraception. …

  8. The shrinking world of girls at puberty: violence and gender-divergent access to the public sphere among adolescents in South Africa

    Participatory mapping was undertaken with single-sex groups of grade 5 and grade 8–9 children in KwaZulu-Natal. Relative to grade 5 students, wide gender divergence in access to the public sphere was found at grade 8–9. With puberty, girls' worlds shrink, while boys' expand. At grade 5, female-defined community areas were equal or larger in size than those of males. Community area mapped by urban grade 8–9 girls, however, was only one-third that of male classmates and two-fifths that of grade 5 girls. Conversely, community area mapped by grade 8–9 boys was twice that of grade 5 boys. …

  9. Educating girls: Creating a foundation for positive sexual and reproductive health behaviors

    Investments that promote keeping girls in school, particularly in secondary school, have far-reaching and long-term health and development benefits for individuals, families, and communities. The purpose of this brief is to describe the relationship of girls’ education on family planning and reproductive health and behaviors; highlight evidence-based practices that increase girls’ enrollment, retention, and participation in school; and provide recommendations for how the health sector can support keeping girls in school.

  10. Sexual and reproductive health rights and information and communications technologies: A policy review and case study from South Africa

    This report examines the linkages between policies on, and implementation of, sexual and reproductive health rights (SRHR) and ICT in rural and peri-urban spaces in South Africa. South Africa is renowned for its legal provisions addressing SRHR yet also experiences barriers to adolescent sexual health. SRHR programming is politically complex and often ambivalent; as a result less contentious aspects which emphasise maternal health get prioritised. …

  11. Measuring adolescent women’s sexual and reproductive health within a rights-based framework: Developing and applying an index

    To explore the feasibility of creating an easy-to-use summary data tool from survey data, we combined 16 indicators into an index measuring four dimensions of adolescent women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights. The index was tested using data from 30 countries that had relatively recent nationally representative surveys and were distributed across four regions. The resulting index, denoted by the summary acronym AISAR, examines adolescents’ access to information and services, agency in sexual activity and health, and perceptions of rights within marriage. …

  12. Adding it up: The costs and benefits of investing in sexual and reproductive health

    To help decision-makers evaluate the investments needed in developing countries, this report provides new estimates, for 2014, of the needs for and costs and benefits of sexual and reproductive health interventions in three key areas: Contraceptive services; Maternal, newborn and other pregnancy-related care; Selected services related to HIV and other STIs for women of reproductive age. …

  13. Sexual and reproductive health and rights of adolescent girls: Evidence from low- and middle-income countries

    This paper reviews the evidence on sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) in light of the policy and programme commitments made at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), analyses progress since 1994, and maps challenges in and opportunities for protecting their health and human rights. …

  14. Risk for coerced sex among female youth in Ghana: Roles of family context, school enrollment and relationship experience

    CONTEXT: A better understanding is needed of the variables that may influence the risk of experiencing coerced sex among adolescent females in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Data were collected from 700 female respondents who were interviewed in 2010 and 2012 waves of a longitudinal study of behavioral risk for HIV infection among youth aged 13–14 or 18–19 and living in two towns in southeastern Ghana. …

  15. Building the assets to thrive: Addressing the HIV-related vulnerabilities of adolescent girls in Ethiopia

    Reaching vulnerable adolescent girls with information and connecting them to services are not straightforward tasks. Poor girls in Ethiopia have few opportunities to access public institutions such as youth or community centers, health services, financial institutions, and schools. They may not know that they have a right to these services, and service delivery staff might not welcome them. …

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