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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. The effects of adolescent childbearing on literacy and numeracy in Bangladesh, Malawi, and Zambia

    Global investments in girls’ education have been motivated, in part, by an expectation that more-educated women will have smaller and healthier families. However, in many low- and middle-income countries, the timing of school dropout and first birth coincide, resulting in a rapid transition from the role of student to the role of mother for adolescent girls. Despite growing interest in the effects of pregnancy on levels of school dropout, researchers have largely overlooked the potential effect of adolescent childbearing on literacy and numeracy. …

  2. Curriculum on adolescent-friendly health services and health voucher mechanisms: facilitator's training manual

    The Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program (AGEP) in rural and urban Zambia aims to build social, health, and economic assets of adolescent girls. A safe spaces component is at the core of AGEP. Girls groups, under the guidance of a female mentor from the same community, provide a safe and supportive learning environment. The meetings are critical in building social assets for vulnerable girls - including friendships, self-esteem, trusting relationships with adults, and social support. …

  3. Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program (AGEP): sexual and gender-based violence; brief, March 2018

    Acceptability and experience of sexual and gender-based violence is alarmingly high among adolescent girls in Zambia. Even more striking is the very young age from which notions of violence are ingrained and experience with violence begins. This brief summarizes the Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program (AGEP) evaluation which demonstrated that in the Zambian context, a program focused on changing norms among girls themselves is not enough to impact attitudes toward and experience of violence. …

  4. Expanding the evidence base and networks for sexual violence response in East and Southern Africa: completion report for the period May 2014–February 2018

    The Population Council’s cooperation with Regional Team for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR), and Embassy of Sweden, Lusaka (‘the Team’) on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in East and Southern Africa has spanned over a decade, emerging in late 2006 in response to high levels of SGBV in the region, coupled with minimal understanding of how to respond to the issue in the low-resource settings that this region includes. …

  5. Menstrual health management in East and Southern Africa: a review paper

    This review provides an overview of MHM policies and programmes in the ESA region, with a focus on education, school and community-based sexuality education, WASH, sexual and reproductive health, workplace support and humanitarian programming, as well as opening up the discussion regarding marginalized groups of women and girls such as disabled, prisoners and transgender men.

  6. Status of sexual and reproductive health and rights in Zambia: comprehensive sexuality education and adolescents sexual and reproductive health

    This policy brief is Part 2 of a three-part series entitled “Status of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Zambia,” reporting on progress, gaps, and existing challenges in SRH&R related to achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

  7. Preventing child marriage in the Commonwealth: the role of education

    Preventing Child Marriage in the Commonwealth: the Role of Education is the latest in a series of reports written by the Royal Commonwealth Society and Plan UK as part of our collaboration to end child, early and forced marriage in the Commonwealth. This report draws on the substantial body of evidence linking improved education to a reduced prevalence of child marriage and seeks to answer the question: what can Commonwealth education stakeholders do to ensure that girls are able to access a safe, high quality education? …

  8. Guidelines for the re-entry policy. What happens if a school-girl falls pregnant?

    In this booklet you can learn more about the re-entry policy guidelines and what actions you can take to ensure that all children, including young mothers, get their right to education fulfilled.

  9. Re-entry to school after giving birth: an evaluation of the process used to design and implement policy in Zambia

    The re-entry policy launched in 1997 advocates that girls who drop out of school due to pregnancy should be readmitted after giving birth. …

  10. FAWE Zambia’s campaign for an enabling readmission policy for adolescent mothers

    This booklet traces the evolution of the re-entry policy in Zambia and emphasizes the seriousness of having in place clear guidelines and a tracking and monitoring system for its implementation. While many countries now recognize the importance of giving adolescent mothers a second chance to continue with their education and pave a future for themselves, only a handful have re-entry policies in place. And among those who have, many have failed to systematically monitor the impact of the policy. …

  11. Boys are more vulnerable than girls to school-related gender-based violence: results from a survey in Zambia

    In Zambia, 47% percent of women aged 15-49 have ever experienced physical violence & 15% experienced sexual and/or gender-based violence (DHS 2007). School-related gender-based violence (SRGBV) is a global problem with serious implications for individual and population health and education outcomes. SRGBV results in sexual, physical, or psychological harm to girls and boys. SRGBV may include any form of violence or abuse based on gendered stereotypes or that targets students on the basis of their sex. …

  12. Are there any disparities between girls and boys in the response of the education sector to HIV and AIDS? Assessment of educational HIV/AIDS prevention programmes applied by SACMEQ III countries

    This paper aims to assess whether the goals of the in-school programmes on prevention of HIV and AIDS that are taught in primary schools of 15 national ministries of education in Southern and Eastern Africa have been reached equitably between boys and girls by the end of primary education. One feature of most of these ministries is that they are in countries that are the hardest hit by a general HIV epidemic. More specifically, the paper aims to analyse schoolboys’ and schoolgirls’ general knowledge about HIV and AIDS. …

  13. Good policy and practice in HIV and health education. Booklet 7: Gender equality, HIV and education

    Education, HIV and gender equality are deeply inter related aspects of personal and global development. This booklet presents new thinking and emerging research alongside a series of case studies and examples of new and time-tested programmes on the issues of gender equality, HIV and education and the interrelation between them. It includes discussion papers, which explore issues and emerging evidence in greater depth, as well as case study examples of programmes and interventions from a range of countries. …

  14. They are destroying our futures: Sexual violence against girls in Zambia's schools

    This report examines the problem of sexual violence against girls in Zambian schools. In Zambia, many girls are raped, sexually abused, harassed, and assaulted by teachers and male classmates. They are also subjected to sexual harassment and attack while travelling to and from school. Such abuse is a devastating and often overlooked manifestation of the gender-based violence that occurs in numerous settings in Zambia and other countries throughout the world. …

  15. Effects of neighbourhood-level educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia

    This study looked at linkages between neighborhood educational attainment and HIV prevalence among young women in urban and rural areas of Zambia. Using cross-sectional survey data from 2003, 1295 women were identified from 10 urban and 10 rural clusters. A neighbourhood-level educational attainment measure was constructed by aggregating individual-level years in school. Adjustment was made for certain variables (education, currently a student, marital status, ever given birth, sexual activity, lifetime sexual partners). …

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