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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Focus on key populations in national HIV strategic plans in the African region

    The World Health Organization (WHO) defines key populations as populations who are at higher risk for HIV irrespective of the epidemic type or local context and who face social and legal challenges that increase their vulnerability. They include sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender people, people who inject drugs, and people in prison and other closed settings. …

  2. Step up the pace: towards an AIDS-free generation in West and Central Africa

    The West and Central Africa region has one of the world’s highest HIV burdens among children and adolescents, second only to that of Eastern and Southern Africa. Yet, due to its lower HIV prevalence rate, the epidemic has received less attention than in other regions. …

  3. Situation analysis of legal and regulatory aspects of HIV and AIDS in Seychelles: final report

    This analysis of legal and regulatory aspects in the context of HIV and AIDS seeks to clarify how existing laws, policies and practices and their implementation and enforcement either support or undermine an effective HIV response in the country. This is important to ensure an effective HIV response that protects and promotes the human rights of people living with HIV and of most at risk and vulnerable populations. …

  4. Histórias da aids no Brasil, 1983-2003. V.1: as respostas governamentais à epidemia de aids. V.2: a sociedade civil se organiza pela luta contra a aids

    Que o leitor encontre nas histórias aqui relatadas um testemunho vivo dos primeiros 20 anos da epidemia no Brasil e que esse testemunho possa servir de matéria de reflexão para os historiadores do tema no futuro.

  5. Zimbabwe's national AIDS levy: a case study

    Background: The authors conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund (‘AIDS Levy’) as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Methods: Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the Zimbabwe National AIDS Council (NAC), and key informant interviews with representatives of the Zimbabwean government, civil society and international organizations. Findings: The literature search yielded 139 sources, and 20 key informants were interviewed. …

  6. A comparative analysis of national HIV policies in six African countries with generalized epidemics

    Objective: To compare national human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) policies influencing access to HIV testing and treatment services in six sub-Saharan African countries. Methods: We reviewed HIV policies as part of a multi-country study on adult mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. A policy extraction tool was developed and used to review national HIV policy documents and guidelines published in Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe between 2003 and 2013. Key informant interviews helped to fill gaps in findings. …

  7. Effective laws to end HIV and AIDS: Next steps for parliaments

    With the global AIDS response becoming increasingly hampered by the criminalization of key populations, this study aims to encourage and assist parliamentary scrutiny of legislation that impedes effective HIV interventions. It highlights the various processes in selected parliaments that led to the adoption of laws with a positive impact on the AIDS response. Although such outcomes were not always easy to achieve, they were mainly the result of inspired leadership by parliamentarians able to overcome the moral obstacles that had stifled socially sensitive issues in political debate.

  8. Policy adoption in dynamic international environments: Evidence from national AIDS programs

    The policy adoption is often seen as a function of internal determinants, external determinants, or a combination of the two. In the years since the start of the HIV/AIDS epidemic nearly every country in the world has adopted of some nature a program to combat the epidemic. This article demonstrates the mixed mechanisms influencing the adoption of AIDS programs, in a quantitative study of 90 countries. Prior studies have claimed that multilateral organizations were vital to global action against the HIV/AIDS epidemic. …

  9. Challenges and opportunities in HIV/AIDS counseling: a case of Jharkhand

    The study highlights the challenges and opportunities in HIV/AIDS counseling. The major challenges are recruiting the right individuals and their capacity building and retention. The finding shows that most of the counselors are not befitting in terms of qualification and experience besides motivation, remuneration, and other issues. The study suggests that to ensure the effective counseling to reverse the epidemic, it is important to focus on such issues through appropriate policy interventions.

  10. The fiscal dimension of HIV/AIDS in Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland and Uganda

    The purpose of this study is to refine the analysis of the fiscal burden of HIV/AIDS on national governments and assess the fiscal risks associated with scaling-up national HIV/AIDS responses. The study complements and contributes to the agenda on identifying and creating fiscal space for HIV/AIDS and other development expenditures. The findings from this study, and the analytical tools developed in it, could help governments in defining policy objectives, improving fiscal planning, and conducting their dialogue with donor agencies. …

  11. HIV/AIDS and the health-related Millennium Development Goals: the experience in Ethiopia

    Ethiopia’s AIDS response is distinguished by its ‘integrated health system strengthening approach’ to expanding health service delivery. This approach is believed to have contributed to the significant strides the country has made towards the health MDGs. At the global level, in a drive to maximize efficiencies and demonstrate the impact of the substantial investments made in health over the last decade, there has been growing literature examining the positive bi-directional linkages between the response to AIDS and the MDGs. …

  12. Toward Universal Access: Examples of municipal HIV programming for men who have sex with men and transgender people is six Asian cities

    This report analyzes current city-level responses in Manila, Bangkok, Jakarta, Yangon, Ho Chi Minh City and Chengdu to highlight innovate responses and underlines that city-based responses will have a critical impact on tackling HIV among MSM and transgender persons. The study also confirms that progress continues to be hampered by the existence of restrictive legal environment and policies, selective enforcement practices and the lack of local coordination between health, law enforcement officials and community based organizations. …

  13. Prevenção e atenção às IST/AIDS na saúde mental no Brasil : análises, desafios e perspectivas

    Este livro descreve os resultados de um excelente e pioneiro projeto multicêntrico de pesquisa de âmbito nacional, o projeto PESSOAS, que examinou as condições clínicas, sociais e comportamentais de vulnerabilidade dos indivíduos com transtornos mentais às infecções e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, entre as quais o HIV, a sífilis e as hepatites B e C. Este esforço resultou de uma colaboração profícua entre os dois Programas Nacionais do Ministério da Saúde diretamente envolvidos no projeto: o Programa Nacional de DST e Aids e a Coordenação Geral de Saúde Mental. …

  14. Estado de la vinculación de la salud sexual y reproductiva, VIH y Sida e ITS en Chile

    Documento que analiza la legislación y políticas públicas de salud sexual y reproductiva en Chile. Este análisis lo relaciona luego con el VIH/sida y las ITS, y resalta la importancia de las políticas en el control de éstas. También analiza el accionar de organizaciones de la sociedad civil al respecto.

  15. Viet Nam HIV/AIDS Estimates and Projection 2007 - 2012

    To support HIV/AIDS program planning, the Ministry of Health has carried out HIV/AIDS estimates and projections since 2003 based on recommendations of the UN Reference Group on Estimates, Modeling and Projections. In 2007 and 2008, the Viet Nam Administration of HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC) in the Ministry of Health collaborated with national and international partners to conduct a second round of Estimates and Projections in Viet Nam in 2007-2008, which optimized the use of existing data to obtain updated HIV epidemiologic data. …

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